Event Horizon Telescope imaging of the archetypal blazar 3C 279 at an extreme 20 microarcsecond resolution
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2020

3C 279 is an archetypal blazar with a prominent radio jet that show broadband flux density variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. We use an ultra-high angular resolution technique - global Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at 1.3mm (230 GHz) - to resolve the innermost jet of 3C 279 in order to study its fine-scale morphology close to the jet base where highly variable-ray emission is thought to originate, according to various models. The source was observed during four days in April 2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope at 230 GHz, including the phased Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, at an angular resolution of ∼20 μas (at a redshift of z = 0:536 this corresponds to ∼0:13 pc ∼ 1700 Schwarzschild radii with a black hole mass MBH = 8 × 108 M⊙). Imaging and model-fitting techniques were applied to the data to parameterize the fine-scale source structure and its variation.We find a multicomponent inner jet morphology with the northernmost component elongated perpendicular to the direction of the jet, as imaged at longer wavelengths. The elongated nuclear structure is consistent on all four observing days and across diffierent imaging methods and model-fitting techniques, and therefore appears robust. Owing to its compactness and brightness, we associate the northern nuclear structure as the VLBI "core". This morphology can be interpreted as either a broad resolved jet base or a spatially bent jet.We also find significant day-to-day variations in the closure phases, which appear most pronounced on the triangles with the longest baselines. Our analysis shows that this variation is related to a systematic change of the source structure. Two inner jet components move non-radially at apparent speeds of ∼15 c and ∼20 c (∼1:3 and ∼1:7 μas day-1, respectively), which more strongly supports the scenario of traveling shocks or instabilities in a bent, possibly rotating jet. The observed apparent speeds are also coincident with the 3C 279 large-scale jet kinematics observed at longer (cm) wavelengths, suggesting no significant jet acceleration between the 1.3mm core and the outer jet. The intrinsic brightness temperature of the jet components are ≤1010 K, a magnitude or more lower than typical values seen at ≥7mm wavelengths. The low brightness temperature and morphological complexity suggest that the core region of 3C 279 becomes optically thin at short (mm) wavelengths.

Galaxies: active

Techniques: interferometric

Galaxies: individual: 3C 279

Galaxies: jets

Författare

Jae-Young Kim

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

T.P. Krichbaum

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Avery E. Broderick

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

M. Wielgus

Harvard University

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard University

J. L. Gomez

CSIC - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA)

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard University

K. L. Bouman

Harvard University

A. Chael

Princeton University

Kazunori Akiyama

Harvard University

S.G. Jorstad

Boston University

A. Marscher

Boston University

S. Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

Michael Janssen

Radboud Universiteit

Chi Kwan Chan

University of Arizona

T. Savolainen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard University

Feryal Özel

University of Arizona

Antxon Alberdi

CSIC - Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA)

Walter Alef

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

K. Asada

Academia Sinica

R. Azulay

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. K. Baczko

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislav Baloković

Harvard University

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

W. Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

G. C. Bower

Academia Sinica

M. Bremer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

C. D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard University

Silke Britzen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

D. Broguière

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do Young Byun

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

S. Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ming Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

I. Cho

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

John Conway

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

G. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Yuzhu Cui

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud Universiteit

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

R. P. Deane

Universiteit van Pretoria

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Université de recherche Paris Sciences et Lettres

Jason Dexter

University of Colorado at Boulder

S. Doeleman

Harvard University

Ralph P. Eatough

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

H.D. Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

V. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

E. Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

R. Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

P. Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Christian M. Fromm

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

C. Goddi

Radboud Universiteit

R. Gold

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Minfeng Gu

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

M. Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

K. Hada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

R. Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

P. T. P. Ho

Academia Sinica

M. Honma

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Chih Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Huang Lei

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

D. Hughes

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Shiro Ikeda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

David J. James

ASTRAVEO LLC

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Jiang Wu

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Taehyun Jung

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Mansour Karami

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

R. Karuppusamy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomohisa Kawashima

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

G. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

M. M. Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Junhan Kim

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

M. Kino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

M.A. Kramer

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Kramer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Cheng-Yu Kuo

National Sun Yat-Sen University

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Sang Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yan Rong Li

Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Observationssupport

R. Lico

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Liu Kuo

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Elisabetta Liuzzo

Istituto di Radioastronomia

Wen-Ping Lo

Academia Sinica

A. P. Lobanov

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

L. Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

R.S. Lu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

N. R. Macdonald

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

S. Markoff

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

D. P. Marrone

University of Arizona

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Universitat de Valencia

S. Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Lynn D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Lia Medeiros

University of Arizona

K. Menten

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Yosuke Mizuno

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observatory

James M. Moran

Harvard University

Kotaro Moriyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

M. Mościbrodzka

Radboud Universiteit

Gibwa Musoke

Radboud Universiteit

C. Müller

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

H. Nagai

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

N. M. Nagar

Universidad de Concepción

Masanori Nakamura

Academia Sinica

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard University

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

Iniyan Natarajan

Rhodes University

R. Neri

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

A. Noutsos

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Hiroki Okino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Héctor Olivares

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

G.N. Ortiz-León

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Daniel C.M. Palumbo

Harvard University

Jongho Park

Academia Sinica

N. Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

U. L. Pen

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Vincent Piétu

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Richard L. Plambeck

University of California

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Oliver Porth

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Prather Ben

University of Illinois

Jorge A. Preciado-López

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Hung-Yi Pu

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

Universidad de Concepción

R. Rao

Academia Sinica

M.G. Rawlings

East Asian Observatory

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard University

Luciano Rezzolla

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Bart Ripperda

Princeton University

F. Roelofs

Radboud Universiteit

A.E.E. Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Eduardo Ros

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

H. Rottmann

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. Roy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Benjamin R. Ryan

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Kazi L.J. Rygl

Istituto di Radioastronomia

S. Sanchez

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

David Sánchez-Arguelles

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Mahito Sasada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

F. P. Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

K. Schuster

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Zhi Qiang Shen

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

B. W. Sohn

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Paul Tiede

University of Waterloo

R. P. J. Tilanus

Radboud Universiteit

M. Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kenji Toma

Tohoku University

Pablo Torne

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

E. Traianou

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

S. Trippe

Seoul National University

Shuichiro Tsuda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

I. van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

H. J. van Langevelde

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud Universiteit

Wagner Jan

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

John Wardle

Brandeis University

D. Ward-Thompson

University of Central Lancashire

J. Weintroub

Harvard University

Norbert Wex

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Robert Wharton

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Doosoo Yoon

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

A. Young

Radboud Universiteit

K. Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ziri Younsi

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Yuan Feng

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

A.J. Zensus

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

G. Y. Zhao

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Shan-Shan Zhao

Radboud Universiteit

Ziyan Zhu

Harvard University

Juan-Carlos Algaba

Academia Sinica

Alexander Allardi

University of Vermont

R. Amestica

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Jadyn Anczarski

Villanova University

U. Bach

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Frederick K. Baganoff

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

C. Beaudoin

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Bradford A. Benson

University of Chicago

Ryan Berthold

East Asian Observatory

J. Blanchard

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

R. Blundell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Sandra Bustamente

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

R. Cappallo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Edgar Castillo-Domínguez

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Chih-Cheng Chang

Academia Sinica

Shu-Hao Chang

Academia Sinica

Song-Chu Chang

National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology

Chung-Chen Chen

Academia Sinica

R. Chilson

Academia Sinica

Tim C. Chuter

East Asian Observatory

Rodrigo Córdova Rosado

Harvard University

Iain M. Coulson

East Asian Observatory

Joseph Crowley

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Mark Derome

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

M. Dexter

University of California

S. Dornbusch

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Kevin A. Dudevoir

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Sergio A. Dzib

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. Eckart

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Chris Eckert

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

N. Erickson

University of Massachusetts

Wendeline B. Everett

University of Colorado at Boulder

Aaron Faber

Western University

Joseph R. Farah

Harvard University

Vernon Fath

University of Massachusetts

Thomas W. Folkers

University of Arizona

David C. Forbes

University of Arizona

R. Freund

University of Arizona

David M. Gale

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Gao Feng

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Gertie Geertsema

Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute

D. Graham

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. H. Greer

University of Arizona

Ronald Grosslein

University of Massachusetts

F. Gueth

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Daryl Haggard

McGill University

N. W. Halverson

University of Colorado at Boulder

Chih-Chiang Han

Academia Sinica

Kuo-Chang Han

National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology

Jinchi Hao

National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology

Yutaka Hasegawa

Osaka Prefecture University

Jason W. Henning

University of Chicago

A. Hernández-Gómez

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

R. Herrero-Illana

European Southern Observatory Santiago

Stefan Heyminck

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. Hirota

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

James Hoge

East Asian Observatory

Yau-De Huang

Academia Sinica

C.M. Violette Impellizzeri

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Homin Jiang

Academia Sinica

David John

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Atish Kamble

Harvard University

Ryan Keisler

University of Chicago

Kimihiro Kimura

Academia Sinica

Yusuke Kono

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Derek Kubo

ASIAA Hilo Office

John Kuroda

East Asian Observatory

R. Lacasse

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Robert A. Laing

University of Manchester

E. M. Leitch

University of Chicago

Chao-Te Li

Academia Sinica

Lupin C.-C. Lin

Academia Sinica

Ching-Tang Liu

National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology

Kuan-Yu Liu

Academia Sinica

Li-Ming Lu

National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology

Ralph G. Marson

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Socorro

Pierre L. Martin-Cocher

Academia Sinica

Kyle D. Massingill

University of Arizona

Callie Matulonis

East Asian Observatory

Martin P. Mccoll

University of Arizona

Stephen R. Mcwhirter

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

H. Messias

European Southern Observatory Santiago

Meyer-Zhao Zheng

Academia Sinica

Daniel Michalik

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Alfredo Montaña

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

William Montgomerie

East Asian Observatory

M. Mora-Klein

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

D. Muders

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Andrew Nadolski

University of Illinois

S. Navarro

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Joseph Neilsen

Villanova University

Chi H. Nguyen

Rochester Institute of Technology

Hiroaki Nishioka

Academia Sinica

Timothy Norton

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Michael A. Nowak

Washington University in St. Louis

George Nystrom

Academia Sinica

Hideo Ogawa

Osaka Prefecture University

Peter Oshiro

Academia Sinica

Harriet Parsons

East Asian Observatory

Peñalver Juan

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

N. Phillips

European Southern Observatory Santiago

Michael Poirier

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

N. Pradel

Academia Sinica

R. Primiani

Systems and Technology Research

Philippe A. Raffin

Academia Sinica

Alexandra S. Rahlin

University of Chicago

George Reiland

University of Arizona

Christophe Risacher

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Ignacio Ruiz

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Alejandro F. Sáez-Madaín

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Remi Sassella

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Pim Schellart

Radboud Universiteit

Paul Shaw

Academia Sinica

Kevin M. Silva

East Asian Observatory

Hotaka Shiokawa

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

David R. Smith

MERLAB

William Snow

Academia Sinica

Kamal Souccar

University of Massachusetts

Don Sousa

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Tirupati K. Sridharan

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ranjani Srinivasan

Academia Sinica

William Stahm

East Asian Observatory

Antony A. Stark

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kyle Story

Stanford University

Sjoerd T. Timmer

Radboud Universiteit

Laura Vertatschitsch

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Craig Walther

East Asian Observatory

Ta-Shun Wei

Academia Sinica

Nathan Whitehorn

University of California

Alan R. Whitney

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

David Woody

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

J.G.A Wouterloot

East Asian Observatory

Melvin Wright

University of California

Paul Yamaguchi

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Chen-Yu Yu

Academia Sinica

Milagros Zeballos

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Shuo Zhang

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

L. Ziurys

University of Arizona

Astronomy and Astrophysics

0004-6361 (ISSN) 1432-0746 (eISSN)

Vol. 640 A69

Ämneskategorier

Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Fusion, plasma och rymdfysik

Fundament

Grundläggande vetenskaper

Infrastruktur

Onsala rymdobservatorium

DOI

10.1051/0004-6361/202037493

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2020-11-10