Inflammatory Mediator Profiles in Secretory Otitis Media in Relationship to Viable Bacterial Pathogens and Bacterial and Viral Nucleic Acids
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2020

Secretory otitis media (SOM) is characterized by persistence of fluid in the middle ear, often following an episode of acute otitis media. Our hypothesis is that failure to eliminate bacterial or viral pathogens may result in persistent low-grade inflammation. In this study, we analyzed inflammatory mediators in middle ear fluids from 67 children with SOM. This was combined with determinations of viable bacteria by culture along with detection of bacterial and viral genetic material by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The inflammatory mediators found at the highest concentrations (>30 ng/mL) were stem cell growth factor-β (median 110 ng/mL), CXCL1, IL-16, IL-8, migration inhibitory factor, CXCL10, and CXCL9. Among bacterial pathogens, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae dominated, regardless of detection methods, while rhinovirus dominated among viral pathogens. Middle ear fluid levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-17, IL-1β, fibroblast growth factor basic, and tumor necrosis factor correlated strongly with presence of bacteria detected either by culture or PCR, while IL-1RA, IL-3, IL-6, IL-8, CCL3, CCL4, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor correlated significantly with real-time PCR values. CXCL10, CXCL9, CCL2, and TRAIL correlated significantly with viral nucleic acid levels. To conclude, persistence of viral and bacterial pathogens may fuel persistent inflammation in SOM. Bacteria caused a broad inflammatory response, while viruses chiefly elicited the interferon-induced chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10.

secretory otitis media






Susann Skovbjerg

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

Göteborgs universitet

Kristian Roos

Capio Lundby Närsjukhus

Maria E. Andersson

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

Göteborgs universitet

Hardis Rabe

Göteborgs universitet

Staffan Nilsson

Chalmers, Matematiska vetenskaper, Tillämpad matematik och statistik

Göteborgs universitet

Magnus Lindh

Göteborgs universitet

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

A. E. Wold

Göteborgs universitet

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research

1079-9907 (ISSN)

Vol. 40 12 555-569




Mikrobiologi inom det medicinska området



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