Polarimetric Properties of Event Horizon Telescope Targets from ALMA
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021

We present the results from a full polarization study carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) during the first Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) campaign, which was conducted in 2017 April in the lambda 3 mm and lambda 1.3 mm bands, in concert with the Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA) and the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), respectively. We determine the polarization and Faraday properties of all VLBI targets, including Sgr A*, M87, and a dozen radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in the two bands at several epochs in a time window of 10 days. We detect high linear polarization fractions (2%-15%) and large rotation measures (RM > 10(3.3)-10(5.5) rad m(-2)), confirming the trends of previous AGN studies at millimeter wavelengths. We find that blazars are more strongly polarized than other AGNs in the sample, while exhibiting (on average) order-of-magnitude lower RM values, consistent with the AGN viewing angle unification scheme. For Sgr A* we report a mean RM of (-4.2 0.3) x 10(5) rad m(-2) at 1.3 mm, consistent with measurements over the past decade and, for the first time, an RM of (-2.1 0.1) x 10(5) rad m(-2) at 3 mm, suggesting that about half of the Faraday rotation at 1.3 mm may occur between the 3 mm photosphere and the 1.3 mm source. We also report the first unambiguous measurement of RM toward the M87 nucleus at millimeter wavelengths, which undergoes significant changes in magnitude and sign reversals on a one year timescale, spanning the range from -1.2 to 0.3 x 10(5) rad m(-2) at 3 mm and -4.1 to 1.5 x 10(5) rad m(-2) at 1.3 mm. Given this time variability, we argue that, unlike the case of Sgr A*, the RM in M87 does not provide an accurate estimate of the mass accretion rate onto the black hole. We put forward a two-component model, comprised of a variable compact region and a static extended region, that can simultaneously explain the polarimetric properties observed by both the EHT (on horizon scales) and ALMA (which observes the combined emission from both components). These measurements provide critical constraints for the calibration, analysis, and interpretation of simultaneously obtained VLBI data with the EHT and GMVA.

Quasars

Long baseline interferometry

Galactic center

Radio galaxies

Blazars

Supermassive black holes

Radio jets

Polarimetry

Active galactic nuclei

Relativistic jets

Magnetic fields

Interferometry

Författare

Ciriaco Goddi

Universiteit Leiden

Radboud Universiteit

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Universitat de Valencia

Hugo Messias

Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array (ALMA)

Geoffrey C. Bower

Academia Sinica

Avery E. Broderick

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

University of Waterloo

Jason Dexter

University of Colorado at Boulder

Daniel P. Marrone

University of Arizona

Monika Moscibrodzka

Radboud Universiteit

Hiroshi Nagai

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Juan Carlos Algaba

University of Malaya

Keiichi Asada

Academia Sinica

Geoffrey B. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Jose L. Gomez

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

C. M. Violette Impellizzeri

Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array (ALMA)

Universiteit Leiden

Michael Janssen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Matthias Kadler

Julius-Maximilians Universität Würzburg

Thomas P. Krichbaum

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Rocco Lico

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Lynn D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Antonios Nathanail

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Angelo Ricarte

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Eduardo Ros

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Ziri Younsi

University College London (UCL)

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Kazunori Akiyama

Harvard University

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Antxon Alberdi

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Walter Alef

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Richard Anantua

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Flatiron Institute

Rebecca Azulay

Universitat de Valencia

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Anne-Kathrin Baczko

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislay Balokovic

Yale Ctr Astron & Astrophys, 52 Hillhouse Ave

Yale University

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Bradford A. Benson

University of Chicago

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Raymond Blundell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Wilfred Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

Katherine L. Bouman

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Hope Boyce

McGill University

Michael Bremer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Christiaan D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Silke Britzen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Dominique Broguiere

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do-Young Byun

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

John E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

Andrew Chael

Princeton University

ESO FINCA

Chi-kwan Chan

University of Arizona

Shami Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ming-Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Paul M. Chesler

Harvard University

Ilje Cho

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Pierre Christian

Fairfield University

John Conway

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

Thomas M. Crawford

University of Chicago

Alejandro Cruz-Osorio

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Yuzhu Cui

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud Universiteit

Columbia University

Flatiron Institute

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare

Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Roger Deane

University of Witwatersrand

Universiteit van Pretoria

Rhodes University

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Université Paris Descartes

Sheperd S. Doeleman

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Ralph P. Eatough

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Heino Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

Joseph Farah

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

University of Massachusetts Boston

Harvard University

Vincent L. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ed Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

H. Alyson Ford

University of Arizona

Raquel Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

William T. Freeman

Google Inc.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Per Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Christian M. Fromm

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Antonio Fuentes

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

Roman Gold

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Syddansk Universitet

Gomez-Ruiz

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia Mexico

Minfeng Gu

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Mark Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kazuhiro Hada

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Daryl Haggard

McGill University

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ronald Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

Paul Ho

Academia Sinica

Mareki Honma

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

University of Tokyo

Chih-Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

David H. Hughes

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

Sara Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

David J. James

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales

Radboud Universiteit

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Svetlana Jorstad

Boston University

Saint Petersburg State University - Spsu

Taehyun Jung

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Mansour Karami

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

University of Waterloo

Ramesh Karuppusamy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomohisa Kawashima

University of Tokyo

Garrett K. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Mark Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Dong-Jin Kim

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jae-Young Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Junhan Kim

University of Arizona

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Motoki Kino

Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Yutaro Kofuji

University of Tokyo

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

Michael Kramer

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Carsten Kramer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Cheng-Yu Kuo

National Sun Yat-Sen University

Academia Sinica

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Sang-Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Aviad Levis

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Yan-Rong Li

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Observationssupport

Greg Lindahl

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Jun Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Kuo Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Elisabetta Liuzzo

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Wen-Ping Lo

National Taiwan University

Academia Sinica

Andrei P. Lobanov

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Laurent Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ru-Sen Lu

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Nicholas R. MacDonald

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Nicola Marchili

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Sera Markoff

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Alan P. Marscher

Boston University

Satoki Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Lia Medeiros

Institute for Advanced Study

University of Arizona

Karl M. Menten

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observatory

Yosuke Mizuno

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Shanghai Jiao Tong University

James M. Moran

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kotaro Moriyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Cornelia Muller

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Radboud Universiteit

Gibwa Musoke

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Radboud Universiteit

Alejandro Mus Mejias

Universitat de Valencia

Neil M. Nagar

Universidad de Concepción

Masanori Nakamura

National Institute of Technology, Hachinohe College

Academia Sinica

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

Iniyan Natarajan

Rhodes University

University of Witwatersrand

South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)

Joey Neilsen

Villanova University

Roberto Neri

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

Aristeidis Noutsos

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Michael A. Nowak

Washington University in St. Louis

Hiroki Okino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

University of Tokyo

Hector Olivares

Radboud Universiteit

Gisela N. Ortiz-Leon

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Feryal Ozel

University of Arizona

Daniel C. M. Palumbo

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Jongho Park

Academia Sinica

Nimesh Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ue-Li Pen

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

University of Toronto

Canadian Institute for Advanced Research

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Vincent Pietu

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Richard Plambeck

University of California at Berkeley

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Oliver Porth

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Felix M. Poetzl

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Ben Prather

University of Illinois

Jorge A. Preciado-Lopez

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Hung-Yi Pu

Academia Sinica

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

National Taiwan Normal University

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

Universidad de Concepción

Ramprasad Rao

Academia Sinica

Mark G. Rawlings

East Asian Observatory

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Luciano Rezzolla

Inst Theoret Phys

Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies

Trinity College Dublin

Bart Ripperda

Princeton University

Flatiron Institute

Freek Roelofs

Radboud Universiteit

Alan Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

Helge Rottmann

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Alan L. Roy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Chet Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kazi L. J. Rygl

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Salvador Sanchez

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

David Sanchez-Arguelles

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia Mexico

Mahito Sasada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Hiroshima University

Tuomas Savolainen

Aalto-Yliopisto

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

F. Peter Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

Karl-Friedrich Schuster

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Beijing University of Technology

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Zhiqiang Shen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Bong Won Sohn

Yonsei University

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Jason SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

He Sun

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Alexandra J. Tetarenko

East Asian Observatory

Paul Tiede

University of Waterloo

Remo P. J. Tilanus

Universiteit Leiden

East Asian Observatory

Radboud Universiteit

University of Arizona

Michael Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kenji Toma

Tohoku University

Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)

Pablo Torne

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

Efthalia Traianou

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Sascha Trippe

Tohoku University

Ilse van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Huib Jan van Langevelde

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Seoul National University

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud Universiteit

Jan Wagner

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Derek Ward-Thompson

Universiteit Leiden

John Wardle

University of Central Lancashire

Jonathan Weintroub

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Norbert Wex

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Robert Wharton

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Maciek Wielgus

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Brandeis University

Feng Yuan

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Doosoo Yoon

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Andre Young

Radboud Universiteit

Ken Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ye-Fei Yuan

Chinese Academy of Sciences

J. Anton Zensus

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Guang-Yao Zhao

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Shan-Shan Zhao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Gabriele Bruni

University of Science and Technology of China

A. Gopakumar

INAF Ist Astrofis & Planetol Spaziali

Antonio Hernandez-Gomez

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Ruben Herrero-Illana

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

Adam Ingram

European Southern Observatory (ESO)

S. Komossa

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Y. Y. Kovalev

University of Oxford

Russian Academy of Sciences

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Dirk Muders

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Manel Perucho

Universitat de Valencia

Florian Rosch

Julius-Maximilians Universität Würzburg

Mauri Valtonen

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 910 1 L14

Ämneskategorier

Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Miljövetenskap

Infrastruktur

Onsala rymdobservatorium

DOI

10.3847/2041-8213/abee6a

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2021-04-13