First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VIII. Magnetic Field Structure near The Event Horizon
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021

Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations at 230 GHz have now imaged polarized emission around the supermassive black hole in M87 on event-horizon scales. This polarized synchrotron radiation probes the structure of magnetic fields and the plasma properties near the black hole. Here we compare the resolved polarization structure observed by the EHT, along with simultaneous unresolved observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, to expectations from theoretical models. The low fractional linear polarization in the resolved image suggests that the polarization is scrambled on scales smaller than the EHT beam, which we attribute to Faraday rotation internal to the emission region. We estimate the average density n(e) similar to 10(4-7) cm(-3), magnetic field strength B similar to 1-30 G, and electron temperature T-e similar to (1-12) x 10(10) K of the radiating plasma in a simple one-zone emission model. We show that the net azimuthal linear polarization pattern may result from organized, poloidal magnetic fields in the emission region. In a quantitative comparison with a large library of simulated polarimetric images from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations, we identify a subset of physical models that can explain critical features of the polarimetric EHT observations while producing a relativistic jet of sufficient power. The consistent GRMHD models are all of magnetically arrested accretion disks, where near-horizon magnetic fields are dynamically important. We use the models to infer a mass accretion rate onto the black hole in M87 of (3-20) x 10(-4) M yr(-1).

Accretion

Jets

Polarimetry

Relativistic jets

Plasma astrophysics

Magnetohydrodynamics

Radiative transfer

Black holes

Radio jets

Kerr black holes

Magnetic fields

Event horizons

Författare

Kazunori Akiyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Harvard University

Juan Carlos Algaba

University of Malaya

Antxon Alberdi

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Walter Alef

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Richard Anantua

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Flatiron Institute

Keiichi Asada

Academia Sinica

Rebecca Azulay

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Universitat de Valencia

Anne-Kathrin Baczko

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislav Balokovic

Yale University

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Bradford A. Benson

University of Chicago

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Raymond Blundell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Wilfred Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

Katherine L. Bouman

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Geoffrey C. Bower

Academia Sinica

Hope Boyce

McGill University

Michael Bremer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Christiaan D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Silke Britzen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Avery E. Broderick

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dominique Broguiere

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do-Young Byun

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

John E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

Andrew Chael

Princeton University

Chi-kwan Chan

University of Arizona

Shami Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ming-Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Paul M. Chesler

Harvard University

Ilje Cho

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Pierre Christian

Fairfield University

John Conway

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

Thomas M. Crawford

University of Chicago

Geoffrey B. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Alejandro Cruz-Osorio

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Yuzhu Cui

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Jordy Davelaar

Columbia University

Flatiron Institute

Radboud Universiteit

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare

Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

Roger Deane

Universiteit van Pretoria

Rhodes University

University of Witwatersrand

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Université Paris Descartes

Jason Dexter

University of Colorado at Boulder

Sheperd S. Doeleman

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ralph P. Eatough

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Heino Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

Joseph Farah

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

University of Massachusetts Boston

Vincent L. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ed Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

H. Alyson Ford

University of Arizona

Raquel Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

Per Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Christian M. Fromm

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Antonio Fuentes

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Zachary Gelles

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

Ciriaco Goddi

Universiteit Leiden

Radboud Universiteit

Roman Gold

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Syddansk Universitet

Jose L. Gomez

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Gomez-Ruiz

Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia Mexico

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Minfeng Gu

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Mark Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kazuhiro Hada

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Daryl Haggard

McGill University

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ronald Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Elizabeth Himwich

Harvard University

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

Paul Ho

Academia Sinica

Mareki Honma

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

University of Tokyo

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Chih-Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

David H. Hughes

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Shiro Ikeda

The Institute of Statistical Mathematics

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

University of Tokyo

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

Sara Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

David J. James

ASTRAVEO

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Michael Janssen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales

Radboud Universiteit

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Svetlana Jorstad

Boston University

Saint Petersburg State University - Spsu

Taehyun Jung

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Mansour Karami

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Ramesh Karuppusamy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomohisa Kawashima

University of Tokyo

Garrett K. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Mark Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Dong-Jin Kim

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jae-Young Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Junhan Kim

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

University of Arizona

Motoki Kino

Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Yutaro Kofuji

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

University of Tokyo

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

Michael Kramer

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Carsten Kramer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas P. Krichbaum

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Cheng-Yu Kuo

National Sun Yat-Sen University

Academia Sinica

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Sang-Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Aviad Levis

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Yan-Rong Li

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

Rocco Lico

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Greg Lindahl

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Jun Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Kuo Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Elisabetta Liuzzo

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Wen-Ping Lo

Academia Sinica

National Taiwan University

Andrei P. Lobanov

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Laurent Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ru-Sen Lu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Nicholas R. MacDonald

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Nicola Marchili

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Sera Markoff

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Daniel P. Marrone

University of Arizona

Alan P. Marscher

Boston University

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Universitat de Valencia

Satoki Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Lynn D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Lia Medeiros

Institute for Advanced Study

University of Arizona

Karl M. Menten

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observatory

Yosuke Mizuno

Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

James M. Moran

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Kotaro Moriyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Monika Moscibrodzka

Radboud Universiteit

Cornelia Mueller

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Radboud Universiteit

Gibwa Musoke

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Radboud Universiteit

Alejandro Mus Mejias

Universitat de Valencia

Daniel Michalik

University of Chicago

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Andrew Nadolski

University of Illinois

Hiroshi Nagai

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Neil M. Nagar

Universidad de Concepción

Masanori Nakamura

National Institute of Technology, Hachinohe College

Academia Sinica

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

Iniyan Natarajan

South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)

Universiteit van Pretoria

University of Witwatersrand

Rhodes University

Antonios Nathanail

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Joey Neilsen

Villanova University

Roberto Neri

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

Aristeidis Noutsos

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Michael A. Nowak

Washington University in St. Louis

Hiroki Okino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

University of Tokyo

Hector Olivares

Radboud Universiteit

Gisela N. Ortiz-Leon

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Feryal Oze

Aalto-Yliopisto

Daniel C. M. Palumbo

Flatiron Institute

Jongho Park

Academia Sinica

Nimesh Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ue-Li Pen

University of Toronto

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Canadian Institute for Advanced Research

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Vincent Pietu

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Richard Plambeck

University of California at Berkeley

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Oliver Porth

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Felix M. Poetzl

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Ben Prather

University of Illinois

Jorge A. Preciado-Lopez

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Hung-Yi Pu

Academia Sinica

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

National Taiwan Normal University

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

Universidad de Concepción

Ramprasad Rao

Academia Sinica

Mark G. Rawlings

East Asian Observatory

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Luciano Rezzolla

Trinity College Dublin

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies

Angelo Ricarte

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Bart Ripperda

Flatiron Institute

Princeton University

Freek Roelofs

Radboud Universiteit

Alan Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Eduardo Ros

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

Helge Rottmann

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Alan L. Roy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Chet Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kazi L. J. Rygl

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Salvador Sanchez

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

David Sanchez-Arguelles

Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia Mexico

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Mahito Sasada

Hiroshima University

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Tuomas Savolainen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Aalto-Yliopisto

F. Peter Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

Karl-Friedrich Schuster

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Beijing University of Technology

Zhiqiang Shen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Bong Won Sohn

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yonsei University

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Jason SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

He Sun

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Alexandra J. Tetarenko

East Asian Observatory

Paul Tiede

University of Waterloo

Remo P. J. Tilanus

Radboud Universiteit

Universiteit Leiden

University of Arizona

Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)

Michael Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kenji Toma

Tohoku University

Pablo Torne

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

Efthalia Traianou

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Sascha Trippe

Seoul National University

Ilse van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Huib Jan van Langevelde

Universiteit Leiden

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud Universiteit

Jan Wagner

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Derek Ward-Thompson

University of Central Lancashire

John Wardle

Brandeis University

Jonathan Weintroub

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Norbert Wex

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Robert Wharton

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Maciek Wielgus

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Doosoo Yoon

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Andre Young

Radboud Universiteit

Ken Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ziri Younsi

University College London (UCL)

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Feng Yuan

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

J. Anton Zensus

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Guang-Yao Zhao

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Shan-Shan Zhao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 910 1 L13

Ämneskategorier

Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Fusion, plasma och rymdfysik

DOI

10.3847/2041-8213/abe4de

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2021-04-13