First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021

In 2017 April, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the near-horizon region around the supermassive black hole at the core of the M87 galaxy. These 1.3 mm wavelength observations revealed a compact asymmetric ring-like source morphology. This structure originates from synchrotron emission produced by relativistic plasma located in the immediate vicinity of the black hole. Here we present the corresponding linear-polarimetric EHT images of the center of M87. We find that only a part of the ring is significantly polarized. The resolved fractional linear polarization has a maximum located in the southwest part of the ring, where it rises to the level of similar to 15%. The polarization position angles are arranged in a nearly azimuthal pattern. We perform quantitative measurements of relevant polarimetric properties of the compact emission and find evidence for the temporal evolution of the polarized source structure over one week of EHT observations. The details of the polarimetric data reduction and calibration methodology are provided. We carry out the data analysis using multiple independent imaging and modeling techniques, each of which is validated against a suite of synthetic data sets. The gross polarimetric structure and its apparent evolution with time are insensitive to the method used to reconstruct the image. These polarimetric images carry information about the structure of the magnetic fields responsible for the synchrotron emission. Their physical interpretation is discussed in an accompanying publication.

Very long baseline interferometry

Polarimetry

Astronomy data modeling

Radio interferometry

Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei

Supermassive black holes

Galaxy accretion disks

Active galactic nuclei

Galaxies: individual: M87

Författare

Kazunori Akiyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Harvard University

Juan Carlos Algaba

University of Malaya

Antxon Alberdi

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Walter Alef

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Richard Anantua

Harvard University

Flatiron Institute

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Keiichi Asada

Academia Sinica

Rebecca Azulay

Universitat de Valencia

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Anne-Kathrin Baczko

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislav Balokovic

Yale University

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Bradford A. Benson

University of Chicago

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Raymond Blundell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Wilfred Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

Katherine L. Bouman

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Geoffrey C. Bower

Academia Sinica

Hope Boyce

McGill University

Michael Bremer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Christiaan D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Silke Britzen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Avery E. Broderick

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

University of Waterloo

Dominique Broguiere

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do-Young Byun

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

John E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

Andrew Chael

Princeton University

Chi-kwan Chan

University of Arizona

Shami Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Ming-Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Paul M. Chesler

Harvard University

Ilje Cho

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

Fairfield University

John Conway

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

Thomas M. Crawford

University of Chicago

Geoffrey B. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Alejandro Cruz-Osorio

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Yuzhu Cui

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Jordy Davelaar

Flatiron Institute

Radboud Universiteit

Columbia University

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Roger Deane

University of Witwatersrand

Universiteit van Pretoria

Rhodes University

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Université Paris Descartes

Jason Dexter

University of Colorado at Boulder

Sheperd S. Doeleman

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ralph P. Eatough

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Heino Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

Joseph Farah

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

University of Massachusetts Boston

Vincent L. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ed Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

H. Alyson Ford

University of Arizona

Raquel Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

William T. Freeman

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Google Inc.

Per Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Christian M. Fromm

Harvard University

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Antonio Fuentes

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

Ciriaco Goddi

Radboud Universiteit

Universiteit Leiden

Roman Gold

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Syddansk Universitet

Jose L. Gomez

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Gomez-Ruiz

Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia Mexico

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Minfeng Gu

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Mark Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kazuhiro Hada

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Daryl Haggard

McGill University

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ronald Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

Paul Ho

Academia Sinica

Mareki Honma

University of Tokyo

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Chih-Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

David H. Hughes

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Shiro Ikeda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

University of Tokyo

The Institute of Statistical Mathematics

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

Sara Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

David J. James

ASTRAVEO

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Michael Janssen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales

Radboud Universiteit

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Svetlana Jorstad

Saint Petersburg State University - Spsu

Boston University

Taehyun Jung

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Mansour Karami

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

University of Waterloo

Ramesh Karuppusamy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomohisa Kawashima

University of Tokyo

Garrett K. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Mark Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Dong-Jin Kim

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jae-Young Kim

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Junhan Kim

University of Arizona

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Motoki Kino

Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Yutaro Kofuji

University of Tokyo

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

Michael Kramer

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Carsten Kramer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas P. Krichbaum

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Cheng-Yu Kuo

National Sun Yat-Sen University

Academia Sinica

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Sang-Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Aviad Levis

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Yan-Rong Li

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

Rocco Lico

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Greg Lindahl

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Jun Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Kuo Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Elisabetta Liuzzo

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Wen-Ping Lo

Academia Sinica

National Taiwan University

Andrei P. Lobanov

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Laurent Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ru-Sen Lu

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Nicholas R. MacDonald

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Nicola Marchili

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Sera Markoff

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Daniel P. Marrone

University of Arizona

Alan P. Marscher

Boston University

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Universitat de Valencia

Satoki Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Lynn D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Lia Medeiros

Institute for Advanced Study

University of Arizona

Karl M. Menten

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observatory

Yosuke Mizuno

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Shanghai Jiao Tong University

James M. Moran

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kotaro Moriyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Monika Moscibrodzka

Radboud Universiteit

Cornelia Muller

Radboud Universiteit

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Gibwa Musoke

Radboud Universiteit

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Alejandro Mus Mejias

Universitat de Valencia

Daniel Michalik

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

University of Chicago

Andrew Nadolski

University of Illinois

Hiroshi Nagai

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Neil M. Nagar

Universidad de Concepción

Masanori Nakamura

Academia Sinica

National Institute of Technology, Hachinohe College

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

Iniyan Natarajan

South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO)

Rhodes University

University of Witwatersrand

Antonios Nathanail

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Joey Neilsen

Villanova University

Roberto Neri

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

Aristeidis Noutsos

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Michael A. Nowak

Washington University in St. Louis

Hiroki Okino

University of Tokyo

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Hector Olivares

Radboud Universiteit

Gisela N. Ortiz-Leon

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Feryal Ozel

University of Arizona

Daniel C. M. Palumbo

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Jongho Park

Academia Sinica

Nimesh Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ue-Li Pen

University of Toronto

Canadian Institute for Advanced Research

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Vincent Pietu

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Richard Plambeck

University of California at Berkeley

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Oliver Porth

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Felix M. Poetzl

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Ben Prather

Harvard University

Jorge A. Preciado-Lopez

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Hung-Yi Pu

Academia Sinica

National Taiwan Normal University

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

Universidad de Concepción

Ramprasad Rao

Academia Sinica

Mark G. Rawlings

East Asian Observatory

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Luciano Rezzolla

Trinity College Dublin

Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Angelo Ricarte

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Bart Ripperda

Princeton University

Flatiron Institute

Freek Roelofs

Radboud Universiteit

Alan Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Eduardo Ros

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

Helge Rottmann

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Alan L. Roy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Chet Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kazi L. J. Rygl

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Salvador Sanchez

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

David Sanchez-Arguelles

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia Mexico

Mahito Sasada

Hiroshima University

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Tuomas Savolainen

Aalto-Yliopisto

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

F. Peter Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

Karl-Friedrich Schuster

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Beijing University of Technology

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Zhiqiang Shen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Bong Won Sohn

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Yonsei University

Jason SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

He Sun

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Alexandra J. Tetarenko

East Asian Observatory

Paul Tiede

University of Waterloo

Remo P. J. Tilanus

Radboud Universiteit

Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)

Universiteit Leiden

University of Arizona

Michael Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kenji Toma

Tohoku University

Pablo Torne

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

Efthalia Traianou

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Sascha Trippe

Seoul National University

Ilse van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Huib Jan van Langevelde

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Universiteit Leiden

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud Universiteit

Jan Wagner

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Derek Ward-Thompson

University of Central Lancashire

John Wardle

Brandeis University

Jonathan Weintroub

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Norbert Wex

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Robert Wharton

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Maciek Wielgus

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Doosoo Yoon

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Andre Young

Radboud Universiteit

Ken Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ziri Younsi

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

University College London (UCL)

Feng Yuan

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

J. Anton Zensus

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Guang-Yao Zhao

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Shan-Shan Zhao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 910 1 L12

Ämneskategorier

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Datorseende och robotik (autonoma system)

Medicinsk bildbehandling

DOI

10.3847/2041-8213/abe71d

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2021-04-14