Associations of treated and untreated human papillomavirus infection with preterm delivery and neonatal mortality: A Swedish population-based study
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021
Background Treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (PTD) although the exact pathomechanism is not yet understood. Women with untreated CIN also seem to have an increased risk of PTD. It is unclear whether this is attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or other factors. We aimed to investigate whether HPV infection shortly before or during pregnancyAU , as:well Hereandelsewhere as previous treat- ; IchangedHPVin ment for CIN, is associated with an increased risk of PTD and other adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Methods and findings This was a retrospective population-based register study of women with singleton deliveries registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1999–2016 (n = 1,044,023). The study population had a mean age of 30.2 years (SD 5.2) and a mean body mass index of 25.4 kg/m (SD 3.0), and 44% of the women were nulliparous before delivery. Study groups were defined based on cervical HPV tests, cytology, and histology, as registered in the Swedish National Cervical Screening Registry. Women with a history of exclusively normal cytology (n = 338,109) were compared to women with positive HPV tests (n = 2,550) or abnormal cytology (n = 11,727) within 6 months prior to conception or during the pregnancy, women treated for CIN3 before delivery (n = 23,185), and women with CIN2+ diagnosed after delivery (n = 33,760). Study groups were compared concerning obstetric and neonatal outcomes by logistic regression, and comparisons were adjusted for socioeconomic and health-related confounders. HPV infection was associated with PTD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.19, 95% CI 1.01–1.42, p = 0.042), preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (pPROM) (aOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.18–1.96, p < 0.001), prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) (aOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.08–1.42, p = 0.002), and neonatal mortality (aOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.25–5.78, p = 0.011). Treatment for CIN was associated with PTD (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.76–1.95, p < 0.001), spontaneous PTD (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.95–2.17, p < 0.001), pPROM (aOR 2.36, 95% CI 2.19–2.54, p < 0.001), PROM (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.17, p < 0.001), intrauterine fetal death (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05–1.72, p = 0.019), chorioamnionitis (aOR 2.75, 95% CI 2.33–3.23, p < 0.001), intrapartum fever (aOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07–1.44, p = 0.003), neonatal sepsis (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.37–1.75, p < 0.001), and neonatal mortality (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.30–2.45, p < 0.001). Women with CIN2+ diagnosed within 3 years after delivery had increased PTD risk (aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.10–1.27, p < 0.001). Limitations of the study include the retrospective design and the fact that because HPV test results only became available in 2007, abnormal cytology was used as a proxy for HPV infection. Conclusions In this study, we found that HPV infection shortly before or during pregnancy was associated with PTD, pPROM, PROM, and neonatal mortality. Previous treatment for CIN was associated with even greater risks for PTD and pPROM and was also associated with PROM, neonatal mortality, and maternal and neonatal infectious complications.