A search for transiting planets around hot subdwarfs: I. Methods and performance tests on light curves from Kepler, K2, TESS, and CHEOPS
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021

Context. Hot subdwarfs experienced strong mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) and are now hot and small He-burning objects. These stars constitute excellent opportunities for addressing the question of the evolution of exoplanetary systems directly after the RGB phase of evolution. Aims. In this project we aim to perform a transit survey in all available light curves of hot subdwarfs from space-based telescopes (Kepler, K2, TESS, and CHEOPS) with our custom-made pipeline SHERLOCK in order to determine the occurrence rate of planets around these stars as a function of orbital period and planetary radius. We also aim to determine whether planets that were previously engulfed in the envelope of their red giant host star can survive, even partially, as a planetary remnant. Methods. For this first paper, we performed injection-and-recovery tests of synthetic transits for a selection of representative Kepler, K2, and TESS light curves to determine which transiting bodies in terms of object radius and orbital period we will be able to detect with our tools. We also provide estimates for CHEOPS data, which we analyzed with the pycheops package. Results. Transiting objects with a radius ≤ 1.0 R⊕ can be detected in most of the Kepler, K2, and CHEOPS targets for the shortest orbital periods (1 d and shorter), reaching values as low as ∼0.3 R⊕ in the best cases. Sub-Earth-sized bodies are only reached for the brightest TESS targets and for those that were observed in a significant number of sectors. We also give a series of representative results for larger planets at greater distances, which strongly depend on the target magnitude and on the length and quality of the data. Conclusions. The TESS sample will provide the most important statistics for the global aim of measuring the planet occurrence rate around hot subdwarfs. The Kepler, K2, and CHEOPS data will allow us to search for planetary remnants, that is, very close and small (possibly disintegrating) objects.

Techniques: photometric

Planet-star interactions

Planetary systems

Stars: horizontal-branch

Subdwarfs

Författare

V. Van Grootel

Universite de Liège

Francisco J. Pozuelos

Universite de Liège

A. Thuillier

Universite de Liège

S. Charpinet

Université de Toulouse

L. Delrez

Universite de Liège

Université de Genève

M. Beck

Université de Genève

A. Fortier

Universität Bern

S. Hoyer

Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

S.G. Sousa

Universidade do Porto

B. N. Barlow

High Point University

N. Billot

Université de Genève

M. Dévora-Pajares

Universidad de Granada

Universidad Internacional de Valencia

R. H. Østensen

Missouri State University

Y. Alibert

Universität Bern

R. Alonso

Universidad de la Laguna

Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias

G. Anglada Escude´

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (ICE) - CSIC

J. Asquier

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

D. Barrado

European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)

S.C.C. Barros

Universidade do Porto

W. Baumjohann

Institut fur Weltraumforschung

T. Beck

Universität Bern

A. Bekkelien

Université de Genève

W. Benz

Universität Bern

X. Bonfils

Université Grenoble Alpes

A. Brandeker

Stockholms universitet

C. Broeg

Universität Bern

G. Bruno

Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania

T. Bárczy

Admatis

J. Cabrera

Deutsches Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)

A.C. Cameron

University of St Andrews

S. Charnoz

Université Paris Descartes

Melvyn B. Davies

Lunds universitet

M. Deleuil

Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

O. Demangeon

Universidade do Porto

B.O. Demory

Universität Bern

D. Ehrenreich

Université de Genève

Anders Erikson

Deutsches Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)

L. Fossati

Institut fur Weltraumforschung

Malcolm Fridlund

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Astronomi och plasmafysik

Universiteit Leiden

D. Futyan

Université de Genève

D. Gandolfi

Universita degli Studi di Torino

Michaël Gillon

Universite de Liège

M. Guedel

Universität Wien

Kevin Heng

Universität Bern

The University of Warwick

K. Isaak

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

L. Kiss

Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE)

Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia

The University of Sydney

J. Laskar

Observatoire de Paris

A. L. des Etangs

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

M. Lendl

Université de Genève

C. Lovis

Université de Genève

D. Magrin

Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova

P. Maxted

Keele University

M. Mecina

Universität Wien

Institut fur Weltraumforschung

A. J. Mustill

Lunds universitet

Valerio Nascimbeni

Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova

G. Olofsson

Stockholms universitet

R. Ottensamer

Universität Wien

I. Pagano

Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania

E. Palle

Universidad de la Laguna

Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias

G. Peter

Deutsches Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)

Giampaolo P. Piotto

Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova

Università di Padova

J. Y. Plesseria

Universite de Liège

Don L. Pollacco

The University of Warwick

D. Queloz

Université de Genève

University of Cambridge

Roberto Ragazzoni

Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova

Università di Padova

N. Rando

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

H. Rauer

Deutsches Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)

Freie Universität Berlin

Technische Universität Berlin

I. Ribas

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (ICE) - CSIC

N. C. Santos

Universidade do Porto

Gaetano Scandariato

Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania

D. Segransan

Université de Genève

R. Silvotti

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

A.E. Simon

Universität Bern

Alexis M. S. Smith

Deutsches Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)

Manfred B. Steller

Institut fur Weltraumforschung

G.M. Szabó

Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE)

Nicolas Thomas

Universität Bern

S. Udry

Université de Genève

V. Viotto

Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova

N. A. Walton

University of Cambridge

K. Westerdorff

Deutsches Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)

T.G. Wilson

University of St Andrews

Astronomy and Astrophysics

0004-6361 (ISSN) 1432-0746 (eISSN)

Vol. 650 A205

Ämneskategorier

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap/teknologi

Signalbehandling

DOI

10.1051/0004-6361/202140381

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2021-07-08