Serum amyloid A – A prime candidate for identification of neonatal sepsis
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021
Neonatal sepsis is common, lethal, and hard to diagnose. In combination with clinical findings and blood culture, biomarkers are crucial to make the correct diagnose. A Swedish national inquiry indicated that neonatologists were not quite satisfied with the available biomarkers. We assessed the kinetics of 15 biomarkers simultaneously: ferritin, fibrinogen, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, −6, −8, −10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, procalcitonin, resistin, serum amyloid A (SAA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, tissue plasminogen activator-3 and visfatin. The goal was to observe how quickly they rise in response to infection, and for how long they remain elevated. From a neonatal intensive care unit, newborns ≥28 weeks gestational age were recruited. Sixty-eight newborns were recruited to the study group (SG), and fifty-one to the control group (CG). The study group subjects were divided into three subgroups depending on clinical findings: confirmed sepsis (CSG), suspected sepsis (SSG) and no sepsis. CSG and SSG were also merged into an entire sepsis group (ESG) for sub-analysis. Blood samples were collected at three time-points; 0 h, 12–24 h and 48–72 h, in order to mimic a “clinical setting”. At 0 h, visfatin was elevated in SSG compared to CG; G-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, −8 and − 10 were elevated in SSG and ESG compared to CG, whereas IL-6 and SAA were elevated in all groups compared to CG. At 12–24 h, IL-8 was elevated in ESG compared to CG, visfatin was elevated in ESG and SSG compared to CG, and SAA was elevated in all three groups compared to CG. At 48–72 h, fibrinogen was elevated in ESG compared to CG, IFN-γ and IL-1β were elevated in SSG and ESG compared to CG, whereas IL-8 and SAA were elevated in all three groups compared to CG. A function of time-formula is introduced as a tool for theoretical prediction of biomarker levels at any time-point. We conclude that SAA has the most favorable kinetics regarding diagnosing neonatal sepsis, of the biomarkers studied. It is also readily available methodologically, making it a prime candidate for clinical use.
Function of time
Serum amyloid A