Shifting expenditure on food, holidays, and furnishings could lower greenhouse gas emissions by almost 40%
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021

This paper investigates how consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions from private households can be reduced. The aim is to quantify opportunities for mitigation through shifting expenditure on food, holidays, and furnishings to less carbon-intensive products and services that are available on the market but not yet mainstream. Two hundred and seventeen analyses of the greenhouse gas emissions/SEK for on-the-market products and services were used for estimating the consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions from an average person, an average single man and an average single woman. The consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions for these households were estimated to be 6.9, 10, and 8.5 tonnes per capita per year respectively; and food, holidays, and furnishings accounted for 56–59% of that. The alternatives to mainstream food, holidays, and furnishings include plant-based alternatives to meat and dairy products, locally produced vegetables, second-hand or repaired furnishings, holidaying abroad by train, and “staycations.” Our results show that total greenhouse gas emissions can be lowered by 36–38% by shifting the expenditure on these products and services to less carbon-intensive alternatives without changing the total expenditure. The share of total emissions deriving from food, holidays, and furnishings is reduced to 30–35% after the change. The findings are discussed in the light of goals for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, additional sustainability aspects, the limitations of the study and needs for further research. This article met the requirements for a silver–silver JIE data openness badge described at





carbon footprint

consumption based greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions


Annika Carlsson Kanyama


Jonas Nässén

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Fysisk resursteori

René Benders

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Journal of Industrial Ecology

1088-1980 (ISSN) 1530-9290 (eISSN)

Vol. 25 6 1602-1616


Annan naturresursteknik





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