Physicochemical tools for studying virus interactions with targeted cell membranes in a molecular and spatiotemporally resolved context
The objective of this critical review is to provide an overview of how emerging bioanalytical techniques are expanding our understanding of the complex physicochemical nature of virus interactions with host cell surfaces. Herein, selected model viruses representing both non-enveloped (simian virus 40 and human norovirus) and enveloped (influenza A virus, human herpes simplex virus, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1) viruses are highlighted. The technologies covered utilize a wide range of cell membrane mimics, from supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) containing a single purified host membrane component to SLBs derived from the plasma membrane of a target cell, which can be compared with live-cell experiments to better understand the role of individual interaction pairs in virus attachment and entry. These platforms are used to quantify binding strengths, residence times, diffusion characteristics, and binding kinetics down to the single virus particle and single receptor, and even to provide assessments of multivalent interactions. The technologies covered herein are surface plasmon resonance (SPR), quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS), total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy combined with equilibrium fluctuation analysis (EFA) and single particle tracking (SPT), and finally confocal microscopy using multi-labeling techniques to visualize entry of individual virus particles in live cells. Considering the growing scientific and societal needs for untangling, and interfering with, the complex mechanisms of virus binding and entry, we hope that this review will stimulate the community to implement these emerging tools and strategies in conjunction with more traditional methods. The gained knowledge will not only contribute to a better understanding of the virus biology, but may also facilitate the design of effective inhibitors to block virus entry.
Single particle tracking
Virus protein to host membrane interactions
Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy
Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation
Equilibrium fluctuation analysis
Dynamic force spectroscopy