Galectin-3 Modulates Microglia Inflammation in vitro but Not Neonatal Brain Injury in vivo under Inflammatory Conditions
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021
Microglia may contribute to injury but may also have neuroprotective properties. Galectin-3 has immunomodulatory properties that may affect the microglia phenotype and subsequent development of injury. Galectin-3 contributes to experimental hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in the neonatal brain, but it is unclear if galectin-3 has similar effects on infectious and sterile inflammation. Thus, we investigated the effect of galectin-3 on microglia in vitro under normal as well as infectious and sterile inflammatory conditions, and the effect of galectin-3 on neonatal brain injury following an infectious challenge in vivo. Conditions mimicking infectious or sterile inflammation were evaluated in primary microglia cell cultures from newborn mice, using LPS (10 ng/mL) and TNF-alpha (100 ng/mL). The response to galectin-3 was tested alone or together with LPS or TNF-alpha. Supernatants were collected 24 h after treatment and analyzed for 23 inflammatory mediators including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines using multiplex protein analysis, as well as ELISA for MCP-1 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Phosphorylation of proteins (AKT, ERK1/2, I kappa B-alpha, JNK, and p38) was determined in microglia cells. Neonatal brain injury was induced by a combination of LPS and HI (LPS + HI) in postnatal day 9 transgenic mice lacking functional galectin-3 and wild-type controls. LPS and TNF-alpha induced pro-inflammatory (9/11 vs. 9/10) and anti-inflammatory (6/6 vs. 2/6) cytokines, as well as chemokines (6/6 vs. 4/6) in a similar manner, except generally lower amplitude of the TNF-alpha-induced response. Galectin-3 alone had no effect on any of the proteins analyzed. Galectin-3 reduced the LPS- and TNF-alpha-induced microglia response for cytokines, chemokines, and phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha. LPS decreased baseline IGF-1 levels, and the levels were restored by galectin-3. Brain injury or microglia response after LPS + HI was not affected by galectin-3 deficiency. Galectin-3 has no independent effect on microglia but modulates inflammatory activation in vitro. The effect was similar under infectious and sterile inflammatory conditions, suggesting that galectin-3 regulates inflammation not just by binding to LPS or toll-like receptor-4. Galectin-3 restores IGF-1 levels reduced by LPS-induced inflammation, suggesting a potential protective effect on infectious injury. However, galectin-3 deficiency did not affect microglia activation and was not beneficial in an injury model encompassing an infectious challenge.
Insulin-like growth factor