Event Horizon Telescope observations of the jet launching and collimation in Centaurus A
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021

Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of active galactic nuclei at millimetre wavelengths have the power to reveal the launching and initial collimation region of extragalactic radio jets, down to 10–100 gravitational radii (rg ≡ GM/c2) scales in nearby sources1. Centaurus A is the closest radio-loud source to Earth2. It bridges the gap in mass and accretion rate between the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in Messier 87 and our Galactic Centre. A large southern declination of −43° has, however, prevented VLBI imaging of Centaurus A below a wavelength of 1 cm thus far. Here we show the millimetre VLBI image of the source, which we obtained with the Event Horizon Telescope at 228 GHz. Compared with previous observations3, we image the jet of Centaurus A at a tenfold higher frequency and sixteen times sharper resolution and thereby probe sub-lightday structures. We reveal a highly collimated, asymmetrically edge-brightened jet as well as the fainter counterjet. We find that the source structure of Centaurus A resembles the jet in Messier 87 on ~500 rg scales remarkably well. Furthermore, we identify the location of Centaurus A’s SMBH with respect to its resolved jet core at a wavelength of 1.3 mm and conclude that the source’s event horizon shadow4 should be visible at terahertz frequencies. This location further supports the universal scale invariance of black holes over a wide range of masses5,6.

Författare

Michael Janssen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

H.D. Falcke

Radboud Universiteit

M. Kadler

Julius-Maximilians Universität Würzburg

Eduardo Ros

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

M. Wielgus

Harvard University

Kazunori Akiyama

Harvard University

Mislav Baloković

Yale University

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard University

K. L. Bouman

Harvard University

A. Chael

Princeton University

Chi Kwan Chan

University of Arizona

Koushik Chatterjee

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud Universiteit

P. G. Edwards

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)

Christian M. Fromm

Harvard University

J. L. Gomez

Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucía (IAA)

C. Goddi

Radboud Universiteit

S. Issaoun

Radboud Universiteit

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard University

Junhan Kim

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

T.P. Krichbaum

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jun Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Elisabetta Liuzzo

Istituto di Radioastronomia

S. Markoff

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Alex Markowitz

Polish Academy of Sciences

D. P. Marrone

University of Arizona

Yosuke Mizuno

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

C. Müller

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard University

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

Universidad de Concepción

F. Roelofs

Radboud Universiteit

Kazi L.J. Rygl

Istituto di Radioastronomia

I. van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Antxon Alberdi

Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucía (IAA)

Walter Alef

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Juan-Carlos Algaba

University of Malaya

Richard Anantua

Harvard University

K. Asada

Academia Sinica

R. Azulay

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. K. Baczko

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

David Ball

University of Arizona

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Bradford A. Benson

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

R. Blundell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

W. Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

G. C. Bower

Academia Sinica

Hope Boyce

McGill University

M. Bremer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

C. D. Brinkerink

Radboud Universiteit

Roger Brissenden

Harvard University

Silke Britzen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Avery E. Broderick

University of Waterloo

D. Broguière

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud Universiteit

Do Young Byun

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

S. Chatterjee

Cornell University

Ming Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Paul M. Chesler

Harvard University

I. Cho

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

Fairfield University

John Conway

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

Thomas M. Crawford

University of Chicago

G. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Alejandro Cruz-Osorio

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Yuzhu Cui

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

R. P. Deane

University of Witwatersrand

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Observatoire de Paris

Jason Dexter

University of Colorado at Boulder

S. Doeleman

Harvard University

Ralph P. Eatough

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Joseph R. Farah

Harvard University

V. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

E. Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

H. Alyson Ford

University of Arizona

R. Fraga-Encinas

Radboud Universiteit

P. Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Antonio Fuentes

Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucía (IAA)

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Zachary Gelles

Harvard University

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

R. Gold

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Minfeng Gu

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

M. Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

K. Hada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Daryl Haggard

McGill University

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

R. Hesper

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Elizabeth Himwich

Harvard University

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

Paul Ho

Academia Sinica

Mareki Honma

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Chih Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

D. Hughes

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Shiro Ikeda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

David J. James

Harvard University

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales

Radboud Universiteit

S.G. Jorstad

Boston University

Taehyun Jung

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Mansour Karami

University of Waterloo

R. Karuppusamy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomohisa Kawashima

University of Tokyo

G. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

M. M. Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Dong-Jin Kim

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jae-Young Kim

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

M. Kino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Yutaro Kofuji

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

M. Kramer

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Kramer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Cheng-Yu Kuo

Academia Sinica

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Sang Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Aviad Levis

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Yan Rong Li

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Onsala rymdobservatorium, Observationssupport

R. Lico

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Greg Lindahl

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kuo Liu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Wen-Ping Lo

Academia Sinica

A. P. Lobanov

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

L. Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

R.S. Lu

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

N. R. Macdonald

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Nicola Marchili

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. Marscher

Boston University

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Universitat de Valencia

S. Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Lynn D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Lia Medeiros

University of Arizona

K. Menten

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observatory

James M. Moran

Harvard University

Kotaro Moriyama

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

M. Mościbrodzka

Radboud Universiteit

Gibwa Musoke

Radboud Universiteit

Alejandro Mus Mejías

Universitat de Valencia

H. Nagai

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

N. M. Nagar

Universidad de Concepción

Masanori Nakamura

Academia Sinica

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard University

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

Iniyan Natarajan

University of Witwatersrand

Antonios Nathanail

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Joey Neilsen

Villanova University

R. Neri

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

A. Noutsos

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Michael A. Nowak

Washington University in St. Louis

Hiroki Okino

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Héctor Olivares

Radboud Universiteit

G.N. Ortiz-León

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Feryal Özel

University of Arizona

Daniel C.M. Palumbo

Harvard University

Jongho Park

Academia Sinica

N. Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

U. L. Pen

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Vincent Piétu

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Richard L. Plambeck

University of California

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Oliver Porth

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Felix M. Pötzl

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Ben Prather

University of Illinois

Jorge A. Preciado-López

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Hung-Yi Pu

Academia Sinica

R. Rao

Academia Sinica

M.G. Rawlings

East Asian Observatory

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard University

Luciano Rezzolla

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Angelo Ricarte

Harvard University

Bart Ripperda

Simons Foundation

A.E.E. Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

H. Rottmann

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

A. Roy

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

C. Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

S. Sanchez

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

David Sánchez-Arguelles

Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrońica

Mahito Sasada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

T. Savolainen

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

F. P. Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

K. Schuster

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Zhi Qiang Shen

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

B. W. Sohn

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

J. SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

He Sun

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Alexandra J. Tetarenko

East Asian Observatory

Paul Tiede

University of Waterloo

R. P. J. Tilanus

Radboud Universiteit

M. Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Pablo Torne

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

E. Traianou

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

S. Trippe

Seoul National University

Ilse van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

H. J. van Langevelde

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud Universiteit

Jan Wagner

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

D. Ward-Thompson

University of Central Lancashire

John Wardle

Brandeis University

J. Weintroub

Harvard University

Norbert Wex

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Robert Wharton

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Doosoo Yoon

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

A. Young

Radboud Universiteit

Ken Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ziri Younsi

Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main

Feng Yuan

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

A.J. Zensus

Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

G. Y. Zhao

Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucía (IAA)

Shan-Shan Zhao

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory

Nature Astronomy

23973366 (eISSN)

Vol. 5 10 1017-1028

Ämneskategorier

Acceleratorfysik och instrumentering

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Fusion, plasma och rymdfysik

DOI

10.1038/s41550-021-01417-w

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2021-11-11