EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol maser polarization in massive star-forming regions V. Completion of the flux-limited sample
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2022

Context. Although the role of magnetic fields in launching molecular outflows in massive young stellar objects has been convincingly demonstrated by theoretical arguments, observationally, the alignment of the magnetic field lines with the molecular outflows is still under debate. Aims. We aim to complete the measurements of the direction of the magnetic fields at milliarcsecond resolution around a sample of massive star-forming regions to determine whether the magnetic field and outflows are aligned.
Methods. In 2012, we started a large very long baseline interferometry campaign with the European VLBI Network to measure the magnetic field orientation and strength toward a sample of 31 massive star-forming regions (called the flux-limited sample) by analyzing the polarized emission of 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers. In the previous papers of the series, we have presented 80% of the sample. Here, we report the linearly and circularly polarized emission of 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers toward the last five massive star-forming regions of the flux-limited sample. The sources are G30.70-0.07, G30.76-0.05, G31.28+0.06, G32.03+0.06, and G69.52-0.97.
Results. We detected a total of 209 CH3OH maser cloudlets, 15% of which show linearly polarized emission (0.07-16.7%), and 2% of which show circularly polarized emission (0.2-4.2%). As reported in previous papers, in the last five sources of the flux-limited sample, we also measured well-ordered linear polarization vectors. Zeeman splitting was measured toward G30.70-0.07, G32.03+0.06, and G69.52-0.97.
Conclusions. The statistical analysis of the entire flux-limited sample shows that the observations are consistent with a bimodal distribution in the difference between the 3D magnetic field direction and the outflow axis, with half the magnetic field directions being perpendicular and the other half being parallel to the outflow. In addition, we determined that typical values of the linear and circular polarization fractions for 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers are P-1 = 1.0-2.5% and P-V = 0.5-0.75%, respectively. From the circularly polarized spectra of the CH3OH maser features, we found that a typical Zeeman splitting is in the range between 0.5 m s(-1) and 2.0 m s(-1). This would correspond to 9 mG < vertical bar B-parallel to vertical bar < 40 mG if F = 3 -> 4 is the most favored of the eight hyperfine transitions that might contribute to the maser emission.

stars: formation


magnetic fields



G. Surcis

INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari

Wouter Vlemmings

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Astronomi och plasmafysik

H. J. van Langevelde

Universiteit Leiden

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

B. Hutawarakorn Kramer

National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand


A. Bartkiewicz

Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika

Astronomy and Astrophysics

0004-6361 (ISSN) 1432-0746 (eISSN)

Vol. 658 A78


Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Fusion, plasma och rymdfysik



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