FORMAT: A Reconfigurable Tile-Based Antenna Array System for 5G and 6G Millimeter-Wave Testbeds
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2022

This article introduces the FORMAT array, a reconfigurable millimeter-wave antenna array platform based on antenna tiles. FORMAT stands for Flexible Organization and Reconfiguration of Millimeter-wave Antenna Tiles, which is a unique hardware solution aiming to implement and demonstrate a variety of antenna array concepts, as well as different array architectures and configurations from the same basic module, providing even benchmark between different solutions and thus valuable insights into fifth-generation (5G) and beyond-5G antenna systems. The combination of a minimum-sized tile with 3D-printed frame parts enables antenna arrays of a variety of sizes, allows multiple beamforming architectures, and a range of different antenna element positioning in the array. The hardware implementation is thoroughly described, with a few different array assemblies being manufactured and measured, validating their antenna performance with over-the-air measurements. Finally, using FORMAT hardware as both base station and user equipment, a 5-m wireless communication link was set up, achieving 4.8 Gbps downlink speed with QAM64 modulation.



Array signal processing

Antenna arrays

massive MIMO


Computer architecture

antenna tile

fifth-generation (5G)

5G mobile communication

Antenna measurements


antenna arrays


Eduardo V.P. Anjos

KU Leuven

Marzieh Salarrahimi

KU Leuven

Thomas A.H. Bressner

Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

Parastoo Taghikhani

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap, Mikrovågselektronik

Adrian Lahuerta-Lavieja

KU Leuven

Amr Elsakka

Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

Jorrit S. Siebenga

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

V. Volski

KU Leuven

Christian Fager

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap, Mikrovågselektronik

D. Schreurs

KU Leuven

Guy A.E. Vandenbosch

KU Leuven

U. Johannsen

Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

A. B. Smolders

Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

Marcel Geurts

NXP Semiconductors Netherlands

IEEE Systems Journal

1932-8184 (ISSN) 19379234 (eISSN)

Vol. In Press




Inbäddad systemteknik



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