Effect of Ni content on 475°C embrittlement of directed energy deposited duplex stainless steel using a laser beam and wire feedstock
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2024

Duplex stainless steel (DSS), specifically the 2209 grade, is increasingly employed in additive manufacturing, particularly in processes like directed energy deposition using a laser beam with wire (DED-LB/w). However, a significant challenge arises when DSS faces brittleness within the temperature range of 250–500 °C. This study employs advanced characterization techniques, including atom probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to investigate DSS embrittlement after aging at 400 °C for up to 1000 h. The hardness analysis revealed that the higher Ni content in DED-LB/w-fabricated DSS cylinder promotes the age hardening compared to 2205 wrought DSS plate. Furthermore, APT and TEM demonstrated that, alongside the decomposition of ferrite into Fe-rich (α) and Cr-rich (αʹ) phases, clustering of Ni, Mn, and Si atoms contributes to the embrittlement. Although the Ni-Mn-Si-rich clusters could suggest nucleation of G-phase, the G-phase crystal structure was not observed by TEM. This might be attributed to the short aging time or limitations in the characterization technique. This work underscores the impact of characterization techniques on the measurement of spinodal decomposition, with APT providing capability of detecting nanometer sized clusters. By elucidating the complexities of 475 °C-embrittlement in DED-LB/w DSS, this study offers valuable insights for industrial applications and a deeper understanding of age hardening in duplex DSSs under specific manufacturing conditions.

Duplex stainless steel

Spinodal decomposition

Transmission electron microscopy

Ni-Mn-Si clusters

Age hardening

Atom probe tomography


Amir Baghdadchi

Högskolan Väst

Mattias Thuvander

Chalmers, Fysik, Mikrostrukturfysik

S. Wessman

Högskolan Väst

Boian T. Alexandrov

College of Engineering

Joel Håkan Andersson

Högskolan Väst


25891529 (eISSN)

Vol. 36 102155


Övrig annan teknik

Metallurgi och metalliska material



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