Exploring the Treatment of Energy Demand in Energy Systems Engineering Modeling
The treatment of energy demand in analyses based on energy systems engineering models is explored in this thesis. Two aspects of modeling developments in systems engineering analyses are treated: linking energy systems engineering and economic models and concepts, and incorporating more detailed subsector analyses in energy systems engineering studies.
Energy systems engineering and economic models have been linked to incorporate economic phenomena affecting the development of energy demand. The interface between these approaches is studied in the thesis. Engineering measures of the cost-effective potential for energy-efficiency improvements are related to the economic measure of decreasing energy intensity. The meaning and internal relationships of the descriptors used to model the interface in the MARKAL-MACRO model are explored. In an applied study, using the MARKAL-MACRO model, issues that require a combination of a detailed representation of the energy system and economic feedback are studied.
In analyzing the role of specific sectors in contributing to, for instance, emission reductions, more detailed subsector analyses are needed. A methodology for incorporating industrial subsector analyses with energy systems engineering modeling is presented in the thesis. The methodology involves treating the two sectors as separate but interrelated systems, rather than as part of one all-embracing energy system. The analyses of the two systems are then linked together in a soft-linking procedure, which combines both scenarios and models. The methodology was applied in a policy-oriented study of the role of the Swedish forest industry in the energy system and its potential in contributing to Swedish CO2 reductions. As part of this work a forest industry material and energy (FIME) model was developed.
pulp and paper
Swedish energy system
forest industry scenarios
industrial energy demand
energy systems engineering modeling