Hinder och drivkrafter för energieffektivisering i svensk industri - två fallstudier
Kapitel i bok, 2005
Energy efficiency provides a tool for Swedish industry in order to strengthen market positions and increase profits. Energy efficiency measures may not be implemented, despite the fact that investments are cost effective. There are thus barriers and driving forces to energy efficiency. The aim of this work has been to identify barriers and driving forces to energy efficiency in the Swedish industry.
Two case studies have been conducted within this work, using in-depth interviews. Case 1 studied energy efficiency within the non energy intensive manufacturing industry. Case 2 studied the use of data in the process industry.
The main barriers in Case 1 were: lack of time or other priorities, costs and technical risks related to production disruptions, lack of reliable information regarding energy performance of bought equipment, unsatisfactory measuring (which constitute a barrier when quantifying an energy saving measure), energy related investments are not prioritised, split incentives with outsourcing and Facilities Management, short pay-back criteria and lack of long term strategy. The study also identified a number of driving forces to energy efficiency: a motivated person with power over investment decisions, long term strategy regarding energy efficient technology, knowledge about the site and where site specific energy efficiency measures could be found, environmental values and access to capital.
In Case 2 the use of data in pulp mills was studied in an efficiency perspective. These mills collect large amounts of data and the question arises whether these data could be used more efficiently. The main barriers to a more effective use of data were: unreliable data were found to have a negative impact, as analyses and proposed measures also become unreliable. Lacks of time when analyses and proposed measures are handled are closely related to cuts in staff and that production oriented issues are stressed. This barrier implies that an important driving force to energy efficiency are motivated staffs who stress energy efficiency. Other barriers were risk of production disruptions, risk with uncertain future conditions and lack of motivation. Several of the interviewees claimed significant efficiency figures, however no unified conclusion could be drawn.
There are both similarities and differences between the two cases. The common barriers were lack of time and costs for production disruptions. Furthermore, a motivated person has been distinguished as a key driving force both in both studies. Other barriers were: lack of long term strategy, technology lock in, low priority of the energy issue and unsatisfactory measuring. Conclusions whether lack of reliable information regarding energy performance of bought equipment is a problem could not be drawn from the two studies as different results were gained.