Ultimate Cold-Electron Bolometer with Strong Electrothermal Feedback
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2004
A novel concept of the Cold-Electron Bolometer (CEB) with strong electrothermal feedback has been proposed. The concept is based on direct electron cooling of the absorber that serves as negative electrothermal feedback for incoming signal. This feedback is analogous to TES (transition-edge sensor) but additional dc heating is replaced by deep electron cooling to minimum temperature. It could mean a principle breakthrough in realization of supersensitive detectors. Noise properties are considerably improved by decreasing the electron temperature. The loop gain of electrothermal feedback could exceed 1000. The response time is reduced by electrothermal feedback to 10ns in comparison with the intrinsic e-ph time constant of 10µs.
The CEB gives opportunity to increase dynamic range by removing all incoming power from supersensitive absorber to the next stage of readout system (SQUID) with higher dynamic range. Saturation problems are not so severe for CEB as for TES: after exceeding the cooling power there is only slight deviation from linear dependence for voltage response. The full saturation comes at the level of 100pW when temperature of absorber achieves Tc of Al.
Ultimate performance of the CEB is determined by shot noise of the signal readout. For relatively low background load P0 =10fW and quantization level Te= 50mK, the limit NEP is equal to 10--19W/Hz1/2. The estimations show that it is realistic to achieve ultimate NEP at 100 mK with SQUID readout system and NEP=10—18W/Hz1/2 at 300mK for background load of 10fW. Applicability of the CEB to post-Herschel missions looks very promising.