Characterization of particulate emissions and methodology for oxidation of particulates from non-diesel combustion systems
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2008
Tailpipe particulate emissions, i.e., particle number, size distribution and total mass, from a series of four-cylinder engines with 2L displacement and power output of approximately 150 hp have been measured. The engines were in their respective vehicle installation, all midsize vehicles from various manufacturers, and represented different combustion concepts, i.e., port- and direct-injected vehicles and E5 and E85 fuels. The results are compared to post-Euro V emission standards for gasoline and biofuels using diesel as reference. The results show that the type of combustion and fuel significantly affect the particulate formation. In general, direct-injected engines show high particle numbers and mass compared to port-injected engines. The particulate number and total mass can be reduced by using biofuels, e.g., ethanol mixes, instead of gasoline. Moreover, an experimental procedure and setup facilitating precise studies of oxidation of particulates in realistic filter structures by well-controlled gas flow (composition and temperature) and sample (particulate load and temperature) conditions has been developed. The results from this method have been verified by using commercial soot as reference.