Evaluation of carbon materials for use in a direct carbon fuel cell
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2007
The direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) employs a process by which carbon is converted to electricity, without the need for combustion or gasification. The operation of the DCFC is investigated with a variety of solid carbons from several sources including some derived from coal. The highly organized carbon form, graphite, is used as the benchmark because of its availability and stability. Another carbon form, which is produced at West Virginia University (WVU), uses different mixtures of solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and petroleum coke. The SECO is derived from coal and both this and the petroleum coke are low in ash, sulfur, and volatiles. Compared to graphite, the SECO is a less-ordered form of carbon. In addition, GrafTech, Inc. (Cleveland, OH) supplied a well-fabricated baked carbon rod derived from petroleum coke and conventional coal-tar binder. The open-circuit voltage of the SECO rod reaches a maximum of 1.044 V while the baked and graphite rods only reach 0.972 V and 0.788 V, respectively. With this particular cell design, typical power densities were in the range of 0.02-0.08 W cm(-2), while current densities were between 30 and 230 mA cm(-2). It was found that the graphite rod provided stable operation and remained intact during multi-hour test runs. However, the baked (i.e., non-graphitized) rods failed after a few hours due to selective attack and reaction of the binder component. (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier B.V.
direct carbon fuel cell