A chemical survey of exoplanets with ARIEL
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018

Thousands of exoplanets have now been discovered with a huge range of masses, sizes and orbits: from rocky Earth-like planets to large gas giants grazing the surface of their host star. However, the essential nature of these exoplanets remains largely mysterious: there is no known, discernible pattern linking the presence, size, or orbital parameters of a planet to the nature of its parent star. We have little idea whether the chemistry of a planet is linked to its formation environment, or whether the type of host star drives the physics and chemistry of the planet’s birth, and evolution. ARIEL was conceived to observe a large number (~1000) of transiting planets for statistical understanding, including gas giants, Neptunes, super-Earths and Earth-size planets around a range of host star types using transit spectroscopy in the 1.25–7.8 μm spectral range and multiple narrow-band photometry in the optical. ARIEL will focus on warm and hot planets to take advantage of their well-mixed atmospheres which should show minimal condensation and sequestration of high-Z materials compared to their colder Solar System siblings. Said warm and hot atmospheres are expected to be more representative of the planetary bulk composition. Observations of these warm/hot exoplanets, and in particular of their elemental composition (especially C, O, N, S, Si), will allow the understanding of the early stages of planetary and atmospheric formation during the nebular phase and the following few million years. ARIEL will thus provide a representative picture of the chemical nature of the exoplanets and relate this directly to the type and chemical environment of the host star. ARIEL is designed as a dedicated survey mission for combined-light spectroscopy, capable of observing a large and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. Transit, eclipse and phase-curve spectroscopy methods, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allow us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of 10–100 part per million (ppm) relative to the star and, given the bright nature of targets, also allows more sophisticated techniques, such as eclipse mapping, to give a deeper insight into the nature of the atmosphere. These types of observations require a stable payload and satellite platform with broad, instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect many molecular species, probe the thermal structure, identify clouds and monitor the stellar activity. The wavelength range proposed covers all the expected major atmospheric gases from e.g. H2O, CO2, CH4 NH3, HCN, H2S through to the more exotic metallic compounds, such as TiO, VO, and condensed species. Simulations of ARIEL performance in conducting exoplanet surveys have been performed – using conservative estimates of mission performance and a full model of all significant noise sources in the measurement – using a list of potential ARIEL targets that incorporates the latest available exoplanet statistics. The conclusion at the end of the Phase A study, is that ARIEL – in line with the stated mission objectives – will be able to observe about 1000 exoplanets depending on the details of the adopted survey strategy, thus confirming the feasibility of the main science objectives.

IR spectroscopy

Space missions

Exoplanets

Molecular signatures

Författare

G. Tinetti

University College London (UCL)

P. Drossart

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

P. Eccleston

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

P. Hartogh

Max Planck-institutet

Astrid Heske

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

J. Leconte

Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux

G. Micela

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

M. Ollivier

Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale

G.L. Pilbratt

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

L. Puig

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Diego Turrini

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

B. Vandenbussche

KU Leuven

Paulina Wolkenberg

Polish Academy of Sciences

J.P. Beaulieu

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

Lars A. Buchave

Universität Wien

Martin Ferus

Czech Academy of Sciences

Matt Griffin

Cardiff University

M. Guedel

Universität Wien

Kay Justtanont

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Astronomi och plasmafysik, Galaktisk astrofysik

P. O. Lagage

Le Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA)

Pedro Machado

Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço (IA)

Giuseppe Malaguti

INAF OAS Bologna

M. Min

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

H. U. Norgaard-Nielsen

Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)

Mirek Rataj

Polish Academy of Sciences

Tom Ray

Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies

I. Ribas

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

Mark Swain

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

Robert Szabo

Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia

Stephanie Werner

Universitetet i Oslo

J. Barstow

University College London (UCL)

Matt Burleigh

University Of Leicester

James Cho

Queen Mary University of London

V. C. du Foresto

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

A. Coustenis

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

L. Decin

KU Leuven

T. Encrenaz

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Marina Galand

Imperial College London

Michaël Gillon

Universite de Liège

R. Helled

Universität Zürich

Juan Carlos Morales

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

Antonio García Muñoz

Technische Universität Berlin

Andrea Moneti

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

I. Pagano

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Enzo Pascale

Sapienza, Università di Roma

Giuseppe Piccioni

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

D. Pinfield

University of Hertfordshire

Subhajit Sarkar

Cardiff University

F. Selsis

Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux

Jonathan Tennyson

University College London (UCL)

Amaury Triaud

University of Cambridge

Olivia Venot

Université Paris-Est

Ingo Waldmann

University College London (UCL)

David Waltham

Royal Holloway University of London

G. Wright

Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)

J. Amiaux

Le Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA)

J. L. Augueres

Le Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA)

Michel Berthé

Queen Mary University of London

Naidu Bezawada

University of Oxford

Georgia Bishop

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Neil Bowles

University of Oxford

Deirdre Coffey

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

Josep Colomé

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

Martin Crook

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Pierre Elie Crouzet

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Vania Da Peppo

Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (CNR-IFN)

Isabel Escudero Sanz

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Mauro Focardi

Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri

Martin Frericks

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

Tom Hunt

University College London (UCL)

Ralf Kohley

European Space Operations Centre

Kevin Middleton

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Gianluca Morgante

INAF OAS Bologna

R. Ottensamer

Universität Wien

Emanuele Pace

Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri

C. Pearson

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

R. Stamper

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Kate Symonds

European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)

M. Rengel

Max Planck-institutet

E. Renotte

Universite de Liège

Peter Ade

Cardiff University

Laura Affer

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Christophe Alard

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

Nicole Allard

GEPI - Galaxies, Etoiles, Physique, Instrumentation

Francesca Altieri

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Yves André

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

Claudio Arena

University College London (UCL)

Ioannis Argyriou

KU Leuven

Alan Aylward

University College London (UCL)

Cristian Baccani

Universita degli Studi di Firenze

Gaspar Bakos

Princeton University

M. Banaszkiewicz

Polish Academy of Sciences

Mike Barlow

University College London (UCL)

Virginie Batista

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

Giancarlo Bellucci

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Serena Benatti

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Pernelle Bernardi

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Bruno Bézard

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Maria Blecka

Polish Academy of Sciences

Emeline Bolmont

Le Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA)

Bertrand Bonfond

Queen Mary University of London

Rosaria Bonito

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

A. S. Bonomo

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

John Robert Brucato

Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri

Allan Sacha Brun

Le Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA)

Ian Bryson

Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)

Waldemar Bujwan

Polish Academy of Sciences

Sarah Casewell

University Of Leicester

Bejamin Charnay

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Cesare Cecchi Pestellini

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Guo Chen

Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias

Angela Ciaravella

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Riccardo Claudi

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Rodolphe Clédassou

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

Mario Damasso

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Mario Damiano

University College London (UCL)

Camilla Danielski

GEPI - Galaxies, Etoiles, Physique, Instrumentation

P. Deroo

KU Leuven

A. M. di Giorgio

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

C. Dominik

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Vanessa Doublier

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

Simon Doyle

Cardiff University

René Doyon

Université de Montréal

Benjamin Drummond

University of Exeter

Bastien Duong

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

S. Eales

Cardiff University

Billy Edwards

University College London (UCL)

Maria Farina

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Ettore Flaccomio

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Leigh Fletcher

University Of Leicester

F. Forget

Université Paris-Saclay

Steve Fossey

University College London (UCL)

Markus Fränz

Max Planck-institutet

Yuka Fujii

ELSI

Álvaro García-Piquer

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

W. K. Gear

Cardiff University

Hervé Geoffray

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

Jean Claude Gérard

Universite de Liège

Lluis Gesa

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

H. L. Gomez

Cardiff University

Rafał Graczyk

Polish Academy of Sciences

C. Griffith

University of Arizona

D. Grodent

Universite de Liège

Mario Giuseppe Guarcello

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Jacques Gustin

Universite de Liège

Keiko Hamano

ELSI

P. C. Hargrave

Cardiff University

Yann Hello

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Kevin Heng

Universität Bern

Enrique Herrero

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

Allan Hornstrup

Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)

Benoit Hubert

Universite de Liège

Shigeru Ida

ELSI

Masahiro Ikoma

Tokyo Institute of Technology

Nicolas Iro

Universität Hamburg

Patrick Irwin

University of Oxford

Christopher Jarchow

Max Planck-institutet

Jean Jaubert

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

Hugh Jones

University of Hertfordshire

Queyrel Julien

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

Shingo Kameda

Rikkyo University

F. Kerschbaum

Universität Wien

P. Kervella

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

T. Koskinen

University of Arizona

Matthijs Krijger

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

Norbert Krupp

Max Planck-institutet

Marina Lafarga

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

Federico Landini

Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri

E. Lellouch

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Giuseppe Leto

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

A. Luntzer

Universität Wien

Theresa Rank-Lüftinger

Universität Wien

Antonio Maggio

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

J. Maldonado

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Jean-Pierre Maillard

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

Urs Mall

Max Planck-institutet

Jean-Baptiste Marquette

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

S. Mathis

Universität Zürich

P. Maxted

Keele University

Taro Matsuo

Osaka University

Alexander Medvedev

Max Planck-institutet

Yamila Miguel

Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur

V., Minier

Le Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA)

Giuseppe Morello

University College London (UCL)

Alessandro Mura

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Norio Narita

University of Tokyo

Valerio Nascimbeni

Università di Padova

N. Nguyen Tong

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Vladimiro Noce

Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri

Fabrizio Oliva

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

E. Palle

Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias

Paul Palmer

Royal Observatory

Maurizio Pancrazzi

Universita degli Studi di Firenze

Andreas Papageorgiou

Cardiff University

Vivien Parmentier

ELSI

Manuel Perger

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

Antonino Petralia

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Stefano Pezzuto

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Ray Pierrehumbert

University of Oxford

Ignazio Pillitteri

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Giampaolo P. Piotto

Università di Padova

G. Pisano

Cardiff University

Loredana Prisinzano

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Aikaterini Radioti

Universite de Liège

Jean-Michel Réess

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Ladislav Rezac

Max Planck-institutet

Marco Rocchetto

University College London (UCL)

Albert Rosich

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

Nicoletta Sanna

Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri

A. Santerne

Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

G. Savini

University College London (UCL)

Gaetano Scandariato

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Bruno Sicardy

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Carles Sierra

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

Giuseppe Sindoni

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Konrad Skup

Polish Academy of Sciences

I. Snellen

Universiteit Leiden

Mateusz Sobiecki

Polish Academy of Sciences

Lauriane Soret

Universite de Liège

A. Sozzetti

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

A. Stiepen

Universite de Liège

Antoine Strugarek

Le Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA)

Jake Taylor

University of Oxford

William Taylor

Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)

Luca Terenzi

INAF OAS Bologna

Marcell Tessenyi

University College London (UCL)

Angelos Tsiaras

University College London (UCL)

C. Tucker

Cardiff University

Diana Valencia

University of Toronto

Gautam Vasisht

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

Allona Vazan

Universiteit Van Amsterdam

Francesc Vilardell

Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC)

Sabrine Vinatier

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Serena Viti

University College London (UCL)

R. Waters

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

Piotr Wawer

Polish Academy of Sciences

Anna Wawrzaszek

Polish Academy of Sciences

Anthony Whitworth

Cardiff University

Yuk L. Yung

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Sergey N. Yurchenko

University College London (UCL)

María Rosa Zapatero Osorio

Centro de Astrobiologia (CAB)

Robert Zellem

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

Tiziano Zingales

University College London (UCL)

Frans Zwart

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

Experimental Astronomy

0922-6435 (ISSN) 1572-9508 (eISSN)

Vol. 46 1 135-209

Ämneskategorier

Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning

Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi

Atom- och molekylfysik och optik

DOI

10.1007/s10686-018-9598-x

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2019-08-23