Soot Sources in Warm-Up Conditions in a GDI Engine
Paper i proceeding, 2021

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines usually emit higher levels of particulates in warm-up conditions of a driving cycle. Thus, sources of soot formation in these conditions were investigated by measuring particulate numbers (PN) emitted from a single-cylinder GDI engine and their sizes. The combustion was also visualized using an endoscope connected to a high-speed camera. Engine coolant and oil temperatures were varied between 15 and 90oC to mimic warm-up conditions. In addition, effects of delaying the start of ignition (SOI) on the emissions in these conditions were examined. Coolant and oil temperatures were varied individually to identify which factor has most effect on PN emissions. While coolant temperature strongly influenced PN with cold oil, the oil temperature insignificantly affected PN at low coolant temperature. These findings indicate that PN emissions are heavily dependent on the engine block's temperature, which is dominated by the coolant. SOI plays a significant role in PN formation because it influences the wall film thickness on the piston top. In the experimental warm-up conditions, injecting fuel at a later SOI was found to decrease PN emissions. Visualization showed no occurrence of diffusion flames at late SOI timings due to the associated reduction in interaction between liquid fuel and the piston. The integrated luminescence from combustion images was found to correlate closely with PN emission measurements. Thus, higher integrated luminescence, indicating higher soot formation due to pool fires on the piston top, was associated with higher PN levels. When coolant and oil temperatures were both varied, PN emissions were found to decline dramatically with increasing temperatures. At lower temperatures, diffusion combustion occurred on the piston due to persistence of a non-vaporized fuel film. At 15oC coolant and oil temperature, this phenomenon was strong, but it gradually declined as the temperature increased. When the temperature reached 60oC, diffusion flames started to disappear, resulting in a dramatic decrease in PN.


Sreelekha Etikyala

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Förbränning och framdrivningssystem

Petter Dahlander

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Förbränning och framdrivningssystem

SAE Technical Papers

01487191 (eISSN)

Vol. 2021 2021

SAE WCX Digital Summit
online, USA,


Annan maskinteknik


Strömningsmekanik och akustik



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