A Move Forward: Exploring National Identity Through Non-linear Principal Component Analysis in Germany
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2022

In research on national identity, scholars have developed a wide variety of approaches to measure and better understand this ubiquitous yet complex concept. To date, most of these approaches have been theory-driven, while only a very few have been data-driven. In this article, we aim to contribute to the latter by introducing a new data-driven method that has not been applied yet—that of non-linear principal component analysis (NLPCA). In contrast to other commonly used methods such as factor analysis, NLPCA distinguishes itself by making relatively few assumptions about the data and by allowing for greater flexibility when discovering underlying dimensions of such a complex concept as national identity. Drawing on the 2013 ISSP National Identity module, our analysis focuses on the case of Germany, also taking into account Western and Eastern Germany. Running an NLPCA, we find four dimensions that cover the multidimensionality of national identity: nationalistic attitudes, national pride and attachment, cosmopolitan beliefs, and membership criteria defining national belonging. This article contributes to the empirical debate on measuring national identity by suggesting a new and flexible methodological approach that better grasps the concept’s complexity and which we believe can move empirical research on national identity forward in and beyond Germany.

national identity

non-linear principal component analysis




Sebastianus Cornelis Jacobus Bruinsma

Chalmers, Data- och informationsteknik, Formella metoder

Marlene Mußotter

Universität Passau

Quality and Quantity

0033-5177 (ISSN) 1573-7845 (eISSN)



Statsvetenskap (exklusive studier av offentlig förvaltning och globaliseringsstudier)

Sannolikhetsteori och statistik



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