On benchmarking of simulations of particle transport in ITER
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019

We report results of benchmarking of core particle transport simulations by a collection of codes widely used in transport modelling of tokamak plasmas. Our analysis includes formulation of transport equations, difference between electron and ion solvers, comparison of modules of the pellet and edge gas fuelling on the ITER baseline scenario. During the first phase of benchmarking we address the particle transport effects in the stationary phase. Firstly, simulations are performed with identical sources, sinks, transport coefficients, and boundary conditions prescribed in the flattop H-mode phase. The transformation of ion particle transport equations is introduced so to directly compare their results to electron transport solvers. Secondly, the pellet fuelling models are benchmarked in various conditions to evaluate the dependency of the pellet deposition on the pellet volume, injection side, pedestal, and separatrix parameters. Thirdly, edge gas fuelling is benchmarked to assess sensitivities of source profile predictions to uncertainties in plasma conditions and detailed model assumptions. At the second phase, we address particle transport effects in the time- evolving plasma including the current ramp-up to the ramp-down phase. The ion and the electron solvers are benchmarked together. Differences between the simulation results of the solvers are investigated in terms of equilibrium, grid resolution, radial coordinate, radial grid distribution, and plasma volume evolution term. We found that the selection of the radial coordinate can yield prominent differences between the solvers mainly due to differences in the edge grid distribution. The simulations reveal that electron and ion solvers predict noticeably different density peaking for the same diffusion and pinch velocity while with the peaked profile of helium, expected in fusion reactors. The fuelling benchmarking shows that gas puffing is not efficient for core fuelling in H-modes and density control should be done by the high field side pellet injection in contrast to present machines.



pellet fuelling

gas fuelling

particle transport



Yong-Su Na

Seoul National University

F. Koechl

United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority

A. R. Polevoi

ITER Organization

C. S. Byun

Seoul National University

D. H. Na

Seoul National University

J. Seo

Seoul National University

F. Felici

Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

A. Fukuyama

Kyoto University

J. Garcia

Le Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA)

N. Hayashi

National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology

C. E. Kessel

Princeton University

T. Luce

ITER Organization

J. M. Park

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

F. Poli

Princeton University

O. Sauter

Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)

A. C. C. Sips

JET Exploitat Unit

Pär Strand

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Astronomi och plasmafysik, Plasmafysik och fusionsenergi

A. Teplukhina

Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)

I Voitsekhovitch


A. Wisitsorasak

King Mongkuts Univ Technol Thonburi

X. Yuan

Princeton University

Nuclear Fusion

0029-5515 (ISSN)

Vol. 59 7 076026


Fusion, plasma och rymdfysik



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