Particle Emissions from Ships: Dependence on Fuel Type
Journal article, 2009
This paper presents the results of field emission measurements that have been carried out on the 4500-kW four-stroke main engine on-board a product tanker. Two fuel qualities-heavy fuel oil (HFO) and marine gas oil (MGO)-have been tested on the same engine for comparable load settings. A fuel switch within the marine sector is approaching and the aim of this study is to draw initial conclusions on the subsequent effects on ship exhaust gas composition and emission factors with a focus on particles. Measurements on exhaust gas concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), total hydrocarbons (HCs), and particulate matter (PM) were conducted. The gases, except SO2, did not show any major differences between the fuels. Specific PM emissions were generally higher for HFO than for MGO; however, for the smallest size-fraction measured containing particles 0.300.40 mu m in diameter, the opposite is observed. This finding emphasizes that to minimize negative health effects of particles from ships, further regulation may be needed to reduce small-sized particles; a fuel shift to low sulfur fuel alone does not seem to accomplish this reduction. The average of this and previously published data from on-board studies on particle emissions from ships results in emissions factors of 0.33 and 1.34 g/kWh for marine distillate oil (MDO) and HFO, respectively. Accounting for 1 standard deviation in each direction from the average values gives a range of 0.18-0.48 g/kWh for MDO and 0.56-2.12 g/kWh for HFO.