Towards a quantum resistance standard based on epitaxial graphene
Journal article, 2010

The quantum Hall effect(1) allows the international standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the electron charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of R-K = h/e(2) = 25 812.807 557(18) Omega, the resistance quantum(2). Despite 30 years of research into the quantum Hall effect, the level of precision necessary for metrology-a few parts per billion-has been achieved only in silicon and III-V heterostructure devices(3-5). Graphene should, in principle, be an ideal material for a quantum resistance standard(6), because it is inherently two-dimensional and its discrete electron energy levels in a magnetic field (the Landau levels(7)) are widely spaced. However, the precisions demonstrated so far have been lower than one part per million(8). Here, we report a quantum Hall resistance quantization accuracy of three parts per billion in monolayer epitaxial graphene at 300 mK, four orders of magnitude better than previously reported. Moreover, by demonstrating the structural integrity and uniformity of graphene over hundreds of micrometres, as well as reproducible mobility and carrier concentrations across a half-centimetre wafer, these results boost the prospects of using epitaxial graphene in applications beyond quantum metrology.

berrys phase

quantized hall resistance

metrology

Author

A.Y. Tzalenchuk

National Physical Laboratory (NPL)

Samuel Lara Avila

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Quantum Device Physics

Alexei Kalaboukhov

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Quantum Device Physics

S. Paolillo

Polytechnic University of Milan

M. Syvajarvi

Linköping University

R. Yakimova

Linköping University

O. Kazakova

National Physical Laboratory (NPL)

Tjbm Janssen

National Physical Laboratory (NPL)

V. Fal'ko

Lancaster University

Sergey Kubatkin

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Quantum Device Physics

Nature Nanotechnology

1748-3387 (ISSN)

Vol. 5 3 186-189

Subject Categories

Physical Sciences

DOI

10.1038/NNANO.2009.474

More information

Latest update

5/29/2018