Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles as Regulating Power Providers - Case Studies of Sweden and Germany
Journal article, 2010

This study investigates plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as providers of regulating power in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary frequency control. Previous studies have shown that PHEVs could generate substantial profits while providing ancillary services. This study investigates under what conditions PHEVs can generate revenues using actual market data, i.e. prices and activations of regulating power, from Sweden and Germany from four months in 2008. PHEV market participation is modelled for individual vehicles in a fleet subject to a simulated movement pattern. Costs for infrastructure and vehicle-to-grid equipment are not included in the analysis. The simulation results indicate that maximum average profits generated on the German markets are in the range 30–80 h per vehicle and month whereas the Swedish regulating power markets give no profit. In addition, an analysis is performed to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of PHEVs as regulating power providers. Based on the simulation results and the SWOT analysis, characteristics for an ideal regulating power market for PHEVs are presented.

Regulating power markets




Sara-Linnea Andersson


Anna Katarina Elofsson

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETH)

Matthias Galus

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETH)

Lisa Göransson

Chalmers, Energy and Environment, Energy Technology

Sten Karlsson

Chalmers, Energy and Environment, Physical Resource Theory

Filip Johnsson

Chalmers, Energy and Environment, Energy Technology

Göran Andersson

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETH)

Energy Policy

0301-4215 (ISSN)

Vol. 38 6 2751-2762

Subject Categories

Vehicle Engineering

Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering



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