Galling related surface properties of powder metallurgical tool steels alloyed with and without nitrogen
Journal article, 2010
Two types of powder metallurgical tool steels (i.e. with and without nitrogen) are investigated with respect to their galling related surface properties. Despite similar macrohardness values, Vancron 40 (nitrogen alloyed) exhibits superior wear behaviour as compared to Vanadis 10 (without nitrogen); demonstrating approximately 20 times longer life span when used as die material in powder compaction. The main failure mechanism is mild abrasive wear for Vancron 40 and early severe galling for Vanadis 10. One important difference causing the tribological discrepancy is supposed to be associated with the preferred formation of solid lubricant oxides of the Magnéli type on the Vancron 40 surface as compared to Vanadis 10. The VN precipitates in Vancron 40 have half the thermal conductivity compared to that of the VC precipitates existing in Vanadis 10. Hence, as a result of the local accumulation of frictional heat generated during powder compaction (or any other type of forming process), Magnéli phases of V2O5 and/or VO2 are more easily formed and maintained on the Vancron 40 surface. With regard to surface oxides, the tool steels were studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The tool steel surfaces were examined by means in situ SEM/AFM and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) for local adhesion force measurements and understanding the orientation of the phases, respectively. In addition, pin-on-disc wear tests were performed on the tool steels and the worn surfaces were analysed using scanning election microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).
Magnéli phase oxides