MS risk genes are transcriptionally regulated in CSF leukocytes at relapse
Journal article, 2013
BACKGROUND: Infiltrating T-helper cells, cytotoxic T-cells, B-cells and monocytes are thought to mediate the damage to myelin, oligodendrocytes and axons in multiple sclerosis (MS), which results in progressive disability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to explore gene expression profiles of leukocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartment of MS patients during relapse. METHODS: Global gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray analysis of cells in CSF from MS patients and controls, and verifications were performed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Fifty percent of the recently described risk genes for MS and 28% of non-risk genes were differently expressed in MS patients compared to controls (χ(2)-test, p=7.7 × 10(-5)). Genes involved in T- and NK-cell processes were up-regulated, and genes involved in processes targeting innate immunity or B-cells were down-regulated in MS. Increased expression of EDN1 and CXCL11 and decreased expression of HMOX1 was verified with real-time PCR and increased expression of CXCL13 was verified with ELISA in CSF. CONCLUSION: DNA microarray analysis is useful in identifying differently expressed genes in CSF leukocytes, which may be important in MS in vivo. Our findings suggest that many of the risk genes for MS are differently expressed in the disease-mediating leukocytes that penetrate the blood-brain barrier.