Pedestrian shoulder and spine kinematics in full-scale PMHS tests for human body model evaluation
Paper in proceedings, 2012
Tools such as human body models are required to show the benefit of restraints needed to reduce risk of injuries and fatalities for pedestrians. To assess the biofidelity of these tools, representative, detailed validation data are required. One aim was to investigate shoulder and spine response in pedestrian/vehicle collisions by analysing new and existing post mortem human subject (PMHS) full-scale tests. Furthermore, assessment was performed whether the specific loading conditions in these PMHS tests were similar to existing component tests and representative of real-life accidents. A full-scale PMHS test was conducted for detailed 6DOF analysis, and three tests were re-analysed. The hands were not tied together in any of the tests, different leg positions were used. To compare loading conditions with real life, accident data was analysed. Beginning with pelvis impact, the spine was drawn inferiorly while the head rotated contralaterally. Before elbow-to-vehicle contact, the ipsilateral scapula rotated upwards, elevated and adducted. Following elbow contact it elevated rapidly until shoulder-to-vehicle impact. Elbow contact appeared to affect the thorax and head kinematics; the head rotated towards the vehicle worsening the head impact. The results underline the necessity to collect additional 6DOF elbow, scapula and spine data in full-scale pedestrian impacts.