First and Second Law Analysis of Future Aircraft Engines
Paper in proceedings, 2013
An optimal baseline turbofan cycle designed for a performance level expected to be available around year 2050 is established. Detailed performance data are given in take-off, top of climb and cruise to support the analysis.
Losses are analyzed based on a combined use of the first and
second law of thermodynamics, to establish a basis for discussion on future radical engine concepts and to quantify loss levels of very high performance engines. In the light of the performance of the future baseline engine, three radical cycles designed to reduce the
observed major loss sources are introduced.
The combined use of a first and second law analysis of an open rotor engine, an intercooled recuperated engine and an engine working with a pulse detonation combustion
core is presented. In the past, virtually no attention has been paid to the systematic quantification of the irreversibility rates of such radical concepts.
Previous research on this topic
has concentrated on the analysis of the turbojet and the turbofan engine. In the framework developed, the irreversibility rates are quantified through
the calculation of the exergy destruction per unit time.
A striking strength of the analysis is that it establishes a common currency for comparing
losses originating from very different physical sources of irreversibility. This substantially reduces the complexity of analyzing and comparing losses in aero engines. In particular, the analysis sheds new light on
how the intercooled recuperated engine establishes its performance benefits.