Surface characterisation of fine inert gas and water atomised stainless steel 316L powders: formation of thermodynamically unstable surface oxide phases
Journal article, 2013

New insights are presented on the speciation of surface oxide phases on fine inert gas atomised (GA, ,45 and ,4 mm) and water atomised (WA, ,45 mm) stainless steel AISI 316L powders. Xray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were applied for the characterisation. Oxidised manganese was strongly enriched in the outermost surface oxide of the GA powders (13 and 47 wt-%), an effect increasing with reduced particle size. Manganese and sulphur were enriched in oxide nanoparticles on the surface. Oxidised silicon (59 wt-%) was enriched on the WA powder surface. Tri- or tetravalent manganese oxides were observed on the GA particles in addition to a- Fe2O3, and Cr2O3. The oxide of the WA powder revealed in addition the likely presence of a silicate rich phase, mainly consisting of tetravalent Si, di- and/or trivalent Fe, and hexavalent Cr, which was confirmed not present as chromate.

Surface characterisation

Gas atomisation


Water atomisation

Stainless steel



Y. Hedberg

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

Mats Norell

Chalmers, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Surface and Microstructure Engineering

J Hedberg

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

P. Szakalos

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

P. Linhardt

Vienna University of Technology

I. Odnevall Wallinder

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

Powder Metallurgy

0032-5899 (ISSN) 1743-2901 (eISSN)

Vol. 56 2 158-163

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Subject Categories

Materials Engineering

Metallurgy and Metallic Materials

Corrosion Engineering

Areas of Advance

Materials Science



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