Surface characterisation of fine inert gas and water atomised stainless steel 316L powders: formation of thermodynamically unstable surface oxide phases
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2013

New insights are presented on the speciation of surface oxide phases on fine inert gas atomised (GA, ,45 and ,4 mm) and water atomised (WA, ,45 mm) stainless steel AISI 316L powders. Xray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were applied for the characterisation. Oxidised manganese was strongly enriched in the outermost surface oxide of the GA powders (13 and 47 wt-%), an effect increasing with reduced particle size. Manganese and sulphur were enriched in oxide nanoparticles on the surface. Oxidised silicon (59 wt-%) was enriched on the WA powder surface. Tri- or tetravalent manganese oxides were observed on the GA particles in addition to a- Fe2O3, and Cr2O3. The oxide of the WA powder revealed in addition the likely presence of a silicate rich phase, mainly consisting of tetravalent Si, di- and/or trivalent Fe, and hexavalent Cr, which was confirmed not present as chromate.

Surface characterisation

Gas atomisation


Water atomisation

Stainless steel



Y. Hedberg

Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH)

Mats Norell

Chalmers, Material- och tillverkningsteknik, Yt- och mikrostrukturteknik

J Hedberg

Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH)

P. Szakalos

Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH)

P. Linhardt

Technische Universität Wien

I. Odnevall Wallinder

Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH)

Powder Metallurgy

0032-5899 (ISSN) 1743-2901 (eISSN)

Vol. 56 2 158-163


Hållbar utveckling



Metallurgi och metalliska material






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