Composition of agglomerates in fluidized bed reactors for thermochemical conversion of biomass and waste fuels Experimental data in comparison with predictions by a thermodynamic equilibrium model
Journal article, 2013

Controlled combustion tests of biomass were performed in the 12 MWth circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler located on the campus of Chalmers University of Technology. The aim was twofold: to investigate the composition of agglomerated material and also to highlight the reasons for sintering and agglomeration during thermochemical conversion of biomass and wastes in fluidized bed reactors using quartz sand as bed material. Bed ash from three different tests regarding fuel or fuel mixtures (wood with straw, bark, and bark with refused derived fuel) was analysed to determine the ash elements using: (a) inductive coupled plasma (ICP) equipped with optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and (b) scanning electron microscopy equipped with an electron dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). Chemical equilibrium calculations were also performed to support the interpretation of the experimental findings. It was found that the combination of (i) well controlled full-scale tests in a fluidized bed boiler, (ii) the use of line-scans by the EDX spectrometer of the SEM on bed samples and (iii) thermodynamic equilibrium modelling is a powerful tool in understanding the phenomena of bed agglomeration using quartz sand.

Alkali chlorides


Quartz sand

Bed material

Fluidized bed boiler


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Chalmers, Energy and Environment, Energy Technology

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Industrial Energy Systems and Technologies

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Chalmers, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Industrial Materials Recycling


0016-2361 (ISSN)

Vol. 111 696-708

Subject Categories

Energy Engineering

Other Environmental Engineering

Areas of Advance



Chalmers Power Central



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