A new neck injury criterion candidate-based on injury findings in the cervical spinal ganglia after experimental neck extension trauma
Paper in proceedings, 1996
In this study a mathematical model, based on Navier Stokes equations, was developed and validated against experimental data. This model predicts the pressure changes in the spinal canal as a function of the volume change inside the canal during neck bending in the x-z (sagittal) plane. Another aim of the study was to investigate pressure phenomena and ganglion injuries at static neck extension loading and dynamic neck extension trauma with a head-restraint present. Experiments on pigs were conducted. Preliminary results indicate that ganglion injuries, as well as pressure transients inside the spinal canal, seem to correlate to the phase shift when the neck passes an s-shape (or maximal retraction) during the rearward motion of the head. That is, when the upper neck quickly changes from a flexion to an extension shape. Static loading of the neck resulted in no signs of injuries to the ganglia. A possible candidate for a neck injury criterion is presented, based on the relative acceleration between the top and the bottom of the cervical spine. A tolerance level based on the pig tests is also discussed.