New Methodology for Transient Engine Rig Experiments for Efficient Parameter Estimation
Journal article, 2013
Introduction The diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is a well established technology to reduce CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from diesel engines. Strengthened emission standards have made the importance of the DOC even greater in recent years since it plays an indispensible role in enhancing the performance of diesel particulate filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by utilization of NO oxidation to NO2. Therefore correct prediction of the DOC performance is very important for simulations of the entire aftertreatment system. When performing kinetic parameter estimation, laboratory scale experimental data is generally used. In laboratory scale it is possible to use essentially any combination of exhaust gas composition and temperature which makes it possible to estimate parameters over a wide range of conditions. However the applicability of these parameters in full scale models is often limited. Parameter estimation on full scale engine rig experiments on the other hand is limited by the exhaust compositions that are possible for the engine to produce. As a result, the fraction of CO is closely linked to the fraction of hydrocarbons and the fraction of NO is closely linked to the fraction of NO2. When switching between two engine operation points it generally takes several minutes before the properties of the emissions have stabilized. This does not only make the experiments time consuming, but it also complicates the transient modeling of the DOC since the changes in inlet properties are far from ideal step functions. In this study an experimental set-up is presented that makes it possible to change the inlet properties of the DOC without changing engine load point which results in much faster transients. The method also makes it possible to change the fraction of NO2 independently of the NO fraction. Method To achieve more controlled and faster changes in the inlet to the catalyst an extra DOC (DOC1) with the possibility for bypass flow and an SCR with urea injection are mounted before the catalyst. The fraction of exhaust gas flow through DOC1 allows variation in the conversion of HC and CO to CO2 and the conversion of NO to NO2. By injecting different amounts of urea the conversion of NO2 and NO to N2 is controlled. The SCR also makes it possible to obtain an inlet composition to the DOC that contains NO2 but is free of NO. Fast changes in inlet conditions are in other words possible and it is also possible to achieve compositions not achievable by only controlling the operation of the engine. Experiments have been performed at several engine conditions and using catalysts with different noble metal loading, lengths and washcoat thicknesses. To achieve high HC and CO concentrations the engine was tuned to run with late fuel injection. Significance A method to carry out engine rig experiments with a wider range of emission conditions makes it possible to more efficiently retune model parameters for a full-scale catalyst from literature data. This should result in faster model development which is of great importance in exhaust gas aftertreatment.