Systems perspectives on alternative future transportation fuels
The focus of this report is to, through a literature review, present the state of the art for systems aspects during fuel production (well-to-tank), highlighting the questions that still need further investigation in order to allow for a better holistic approach when planning for the future alternatives among renewable transportation fuel solutions. Research topics within the biofuel value chain from a systems perspective are presented and discussed, and a number of international studies addressing the whole chain from well to wheel are outlined and compared including for example the feedstock potential for biofuel production. It is concluded that further research is needed regarding systems analyses of biofuel production processes tackling question on how to realize the theoretical potentials of bioenergy without interfering with other interests. This in turn requires regional optimization of land use and adapted sustainability policies that are supported by intergovernmental rules and policies. Possible measures for avoiding competition with the food sector could be an intensification of food production, using fallow land for biofuel production, or reducing losses in food chain. All these options are interlinked and their effects need to be studied with a holistic approach.