Massive MIMO with IQ Imbalance: Performance analysis and compensation
Paper in proceedings, 2015
In this paper, we consider the uplink of a single-cell massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with inphase and quadrature-phase imbalance (IQI). This scenario is of particular importance in massive MIMO systems, where the deployment of lower-cost, lower-quality components is desirable to make massive MIMO a viable technology. Particularly, we investigate the effect of IQI on the performance of massive MIMO employing maximum-ratio combining (MRC) receivers. In order to study how IQI affects channel estimation, we derive a new channel estimator for the IQI-impaired model and show that IQI can substantially downgrade the performance of MRC receivers. Moreover, a low-complexity IQI compensation scheme, suitable for massive MIMO, is proposed which is based on the IQI coefficients' estimation and it is independent of the channel gain. The performance of the proposed compensation scheme is analytically evaluated by deriving a tractable approximation of the ergodic achievable rate and providing the asymptotic power scaling laws assuming transmission over Rayleigh fading channels with log-normal large-scale fading. Finally, we show that massive MIMO effectively suppresses the residual IQI effects, as long as, the compensation scheme is applied.