Formation of reactive aldehydes (MDA, HHE, HNE) during the digestion of cod liver oil: comparison of human and porcine in vitro digestion models
Journal article, 2016

In this work, we investigated lipid oxidation of cod liver oil during gastrointestinal (GI) digestion using two types of in vitro digestion models. In the first type of model, we used human GI juices, while we used digestive enzymes and bile from porcine origin in the second type of model. Human and porcine models were matched with respect to factors important for lipolysis, using a standardized digestion protocol. The digests were analysed for reactive oxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-hexenal (HHE) by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS), and for free fatty acids (FFA) obtained during the digestion by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The formation of the oxidation products MDA, HHE, and HNE was low during the gastric digestion, however, it increased during the duodenal digestion. The formation of the oxidation products reached higher levels when digestive juices of human origin were used (60 μM of MDA, 0.96 μM of HHE, and 1.6 μM of HNE) compared to when using enzymes and bile of porcine origin (9.8, and 0.36 μM of MDA; 0.16, and 0.026 μM of HHE; 0.23, and 0.005 μM of HNE, respectively, in porcine models I and II). In all models, FFA release was only detected during the intestinal step, and reached up to 31% of total fatty acids (FA). The findings in this work may be of importance when designing oxidation oriented lipid digestion studies.

in vitro digestion

Lipid oxidation

cod liver oil

Author

Cecilia Tullberg

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Karin Larsson

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Nils-Gunnar Carlsson

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Irene Comi

Norwegian University of Life Sciences

Nathalie Scheers

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

G. E. Vegarud

Norwegian University of Life Sciences

Ingrid Undeland

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Food and Function

2042-650X (ISSN) 2042-6496 (eISSN)

Vol. 7 3 1401-1412

Subject Categories

Food Engineering

Areas of Advance

Life Science Engineering (2010-2018)

DOI

10.1039/c5fo01332a

More information

Latest update

5/2/2018 1