Crystalline Nanocellulose — Preparation, Modification, and Properties
Book chapter, 2015
Cellulose is a linear biopolymer found naturally in plant cells such as wood and cotton. It is the worlds most abundant polymer in nature and possesses properties such as good biocompatibility, low cost, low density, high strength, and good mechanical properties. By mechanical or chemical treatment, the cellulose fibers can be converted into cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) or cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) that possess outstanding properties compared with the original cellulosic fiber but also when compared with other materials normally used as reinforcements in composite materials such as Kevlar or steel wires. This review will describe the nanocellulose materials preparation techniques and cellulose sources, chemical modification both on the crystalline surface and during hydrolysis and its many properties and its use in biocomposite materials. Nanocellulose in its different forms shows an increasing interest in application areas such as packaging, paper and paperboard, food industry, medical and hygiene products, paints, cosmetics, and optical sensors.