Ethanol production from alkali-pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with mucor indicus
Journal article, 2016

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is a potential raw material for production of lignocellulosic bioethanol. The OPEFB was pretreated with 8% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution at 100°C for 10 to 90 min. Enzymatic digestion was carried out using cellulase and β-glucosidase at 45°C for 24 h. It was then inoculated with Mucor indicus spores suspension and fermented under anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 96 h. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment effectively removed 51–57% of lignin in the OPEFB and also its hemicellulose (40–84%). The highest glucan digestibility (0.75 g/g theoretical glucose) was achieved in 40-min NaOH pretreatment. Fermentation by M. indicus resulted in 68.4% of the theoretical ethanol yield, while glycerol (16.2–83.2 mg/g), succinic acid (0–0.4 mg/g), and acetic acid (0–0.9 mg/g) were its by-products. According to these results, 11.75 million tons of dry OPEFB in Indonesia can be converted into 1.5 billion liters of ethanol per year.

oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB)



sodium hydroxide

Mucor indicus

simultaneous saccharification and fermentation


Abdi Christia

Gadjah Mada University

Arima Setowati

Gadjah Mada University

Ria Millati

Gadjah Mada University

Keikhosro Karimi

Isfahan University of Technology

M. N. Cahyanto

Gadjah Mada University

Claes Niklasson

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chemical Technology

Mohammad Taherzadeh Esfahani

University of Borås

International Journal of Green Energy

1543-5075 (ISSN) 1543-5083 (eISSN)

Vol. 13 6 566-572

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Subject Categories

Industrial Biotechnology

Chemical Engineering

Environmental Biotechnology

Areas of Advance


Life Science Engineering (2010-2018)



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3/8/2018 9