Shifting Urban Freight Deliveries to the Off-Peak Hours: A Review of Theory and Practice
Journal article, 2017

This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature on off-peak hour deliveries (OPHD). The review identifies different approaches and policy levers used in the past, such as the laissez-faire approach, a road pricing approach, an incentives approach, and a regulatory approach. The paper also identifies different delivery reception schemes discussed in the literature. The authors complement the theory with a synthesis of pilot tests and the analysis of a set of interviews with practitioners (from the public sector and other organizations) in charge of OPHD programs. The results from this review show the potential benefits that these programs could bring about, the challenges faced in the early stages—along with potential solutions—and the significant progress that has been made in this domain in the last decade. According to the review, the results from the pilot tests tend to be positive, suggesting the importance of these programs to reach more efficient and sustainable transportation systems.

freight transportation policy

freight efficiency

urban freight transportation

off-peak hour deliveries

nighttime freight distribution


Ivan Sanchez-Diaz

Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Service Management and Logistics

Peter Géoren

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

Märta Brolinson

Stockholm Traffic Administration

Transport Reviews

0144-1647 (ISSN) 1464-5327 (eISSN)

Vol. 37 4 521-543

Gothenburg Urban Freight Platform

VREF, 2014-02-01 -- 2019-12-31.

VREF, 2022-06-01 -- 2024-12-31.

Off-peak city distribution, research stage 1

VINNOVA (2014-05598), 2014-12-01 -- 2016-06-30.

Areas of Advance


Subject Categories

Transport Systems and Logistics



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