A female head–neck model for rear impact simulations
Journal article, 2016

Several mathematical cervical models of the 50th percentile male have been developed and used for impact biomechanics research. However, for the 50th percentile female no similar modelling efforts have been made, despite females being subject to a higher risk of soft tissue neck injuries. This is a limitation for the development of automotive protective systems addressing Whiplash Associated Disorders (WADs), most commonly caused in rear impacts, as the risk for females sustaining WAD symptoms is double that of males. In this study, a finite element head and neck model of a 50th percentile female was validated in rear impacts. A previously validated ligamentous cervical spine model was complemented with a rigid body head, soft tissues and muscles. In both physiological flexion-extension motions and simulated rear impacts, the kinematic response at segment level was comparable to that of human subjects. Evaluation of ligament stress levels in simulations with varied initial cervical curvature revealed that if an individual assumes a more lordotic posture than the neutral, a higher risk of WAD might occur in rear impact. The female head and neck model, together with a kinematical whole body model which is under development, addresses a need for tools for assessment of automotive protection systems for the group which is at the highest risk to sustain WAD.

Female

Whiplash

Finite element

Rear impact

Human body model

Author

Jonas Östh

SAFER, The Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

Manuel Mendoza-Vazquez

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

SAFER, The Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre

Fusako Sato Sakayachi

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

Japan Automobile Research Institute

Mats Svensson

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

SAFER, The Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre

Astrid Linder

The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

Karin Brolin

SAFER, The Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

Journal of Biomechanics

0021-9290 (ISSN)

49-56

Areas of Advance

Transport

Subject Categories

Applied Mechanics

Vehicle Engineering

Infrastructure

C3SE (Chalmers Centre for Computational Science and Engineering)

DOI

10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.11.066

More information

Latest update

11/20/2018