Intake and sources of gluten in 20- to 75-year-old Danish adults: a national dietary survey
Journal article, 2017

Purpose: Celiac disease, an immunological response triggered by gluten, affects ~1 % of the Western population. Information concerning gluten intake in the general population is scarce. We determined intake of gluten from wheat, barley, rye and oat in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2005–2008. The study population comprised a random cross-sectional sample of 1494 adults 20–75 years, selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Methods: Protein content in wheat, rye, barley and oat was determined from the National Danish Food Composition Table and multiplied with the amount of cereal used in recipes. Amount of gluten was calculated as amount of cereal protein ×0.80 for wheat and oat, ×0.65 for rye and ×0.50 for barley. Dietary intake was recorded daily during seven consecutive days in pre-coded food diaries with open-answer possibilities. Results: Mean total gluten intake was 10.4 ± 4.4 g/day (10th–90th percentiles; 5.4–16.2 g/day), in men 12.0 ± 4.6 g/day and 9.0 ± 3.4 g/day in women. It was higher among men than among women in all age groups (20–75 years; P < 0.0001); however, this difference was eliminated when adjusting for energy intake. Intake of different gluten sources tended to be higher in men than in women with the exception of gluten from barley. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age (P < 0.0001) as did gluten intake from wheat (P < 0.0001), whereas intake of gluten from rye (P < 0.0001) and barley (P = 0.001) increased with increasing age, also when adjusted for energy intake or body weight. Conclusion: This study presents representative population-based data on gluten intake in Danish adults. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age.









Camilla Hoppe

Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

R. J. Gabel

University of Copenhagen

M. Kristensen

University of Copenhagen

Mads Vendelbo Lind

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

Jeppe Matthiessen

Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

Tue Christensen

Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

Ellen Trolle

Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

Sisse Fagt

Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

M. L. Madsen

University of Copenhagen

Steffen Husby

University of Southern Denmark

European Journal of Nutrition

1436-6207 (ISSN) 1436-6215 (eISSN)

Vol. 56 1 107-117


Basic sciences

Areas of Advance

Life Science Engineering (2010-2018)

Subject Categories

Other Natural Sciences

Nutrition and Dietetics



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Latest update

9/6/2018 1