Mineralization at Titanium Surfaces is a Two-Step Process.
Journal article, 2016
Mapping the initial reaction of implants with blood or cell culture medium is important for the understanding of the healing process in bone. In the present study, the formation of low crystalline carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) onto commercially pure titanium (Ti) implants from cell culture medium and blood, is described as an early event in bone healing at implants. The Ti-implants were incubated with cell culture medium (DMEM) or whole blood and the surface concentration of Ca, P and HA was analyzed by XPS, EDX and Tof-SIMS. After incubation with DMEM for 16 h and 72 h, EDX and XPS analysis showed stable levels of Ca and P on the Ti-surface. ESEM images showed an even distribution of Ca and P. Further analysis of the XPS results indicated that CHA was formed at the implants. Analysis with ToF-SIMS yielded high m.w. fragments of HA, such as Ca₂PO4 at m/z 174.9 and Ca₃PO₅ at m/z 230.8, as secondary ions at the Ti-surfaces. Analysis of implants incubated in blood for 16 h, with ToF-SIMS, showed initial formation of CHA yielding CaOH as secondary ion. The results indicate that early mineralization at Ti-surfaces is an important step in the healing of implants into bone.