The topology of Mobility as a Service: A tool for understanding effects on business and society, user behavior, and technical requirements
Paper in proceedings, 2017
The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the concept of MaaS and what characterizes a “MaaS service”, and to propose a topology of MaaS as a tool for facilitating the discussion of MaaS and enabling the “comparison of” different services, and for understanding MaaS’ potential effects. Based on a literature review analyzing existing definitions, and an expert workshop identifying key aspects and ascertaining service differentiations accordingly, the resulting proposed topology consists of MaaS Levels 0 to 4 as characterized by different types of integration: 0 no integration; 1 integration of information; 2 integration of payment; 3 integration of the customer relationship and experience; 4 integration of policy. The levels are described in terms of their added value and further discussed regarding implications for business, society, users, and technical requirements. The proposed topology adds clarity to the discussion of such a trending topic and enables the positioning of services along the MaaS spectrum. It also deepens the understanding of why MaaS can take time to develop (Levels 3 and 4 in particular) and can help support the development of action plans in terms of what needs to be done depending on what type of MaaS one wants to develop. Further analysis is desirable regarding the possibilities and problems linked with the different levels of MaaS. Such an analysis is key to understanding which effects can be achieved via the implementation of different levels of MaaS services in terms of e.g. social, economic and ecological sustainability, and business potential.
Mobility as a Service (MaaS)