Estimates of source spectra of ships from long term recordings in the Baltic sea
Journal article, 2017

© 2017 Karasalo, östberg, Sigray, Jalkanen, Johansson, Liefvendahl and Bensow. Estimates of the noise source spectra of ships based on long term measurements in the Baltic sea are presented. The measurement data were obtained by a hydrophone deployed near a major shipping lane south of the island öland. Data from over 2,000 close-by passages were recorded during a 3 month period from October to December 2014. For each passage, ship-to-hydrophone transmission loss (TL) spectra were computed by sound propagation modeling using 1. bathymetry data from the Baltic Sea Bathymetry Database (BSBD), 2. sound speed profiles from the HIROMB oceanographic model, 3. seabed parameters obtained by acoustic inversion of data from a calibrated source, and 4. AIS data providing information on each ship's position. These TL spectra were then subtracted from the received noise spectra to estimate the free field source level (SL) spectra for each passage. The SL were compared to predictions by some existing models of noise emission from ships. Input parameters to the models, including e.g., ship length, width, speed, displacement, and engine mass, were obtained from AIS (Automatic Identification System) data and the STEAM database of the Finnish Metereological Institute (FMI).



Ship noise

Automatic Identification System

Underwater radiated noise

Propagation modeling

Baltic sea


I. Karasalo

Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI)

M. Östberg

Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI)

P. Sigray

Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI)

J. P. Jalkanen

Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)

L. Johansson

Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)

Mattias Liefvendahl

Chalmers, Shipping and Marine Technology

Rickard Bensow

Chalmers, Shipping and Marine Technology, Marine Technology

Frontiers in Marine Science

2296-7745 (eISSN)

Vol. 4 JUN 164

Sustainable Shipping and Environment of the Baltic Sea region (SHEBA)

Baltic Organisations' Network for Funding Science EEIG (BONUS) (Call2014-41SHEBA), 2015-04-01 -- 2018-03-31.

Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (NV06312-14,Dnr15/23), 2015-04-01 -- 2018-03-31.

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance



Basic sciences

Subject Categories

Vehicle Engineering

Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics



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