Estimates of source spectra of ships from long term recordings in the Baltic sea
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2017

© 2017 Karasalo, östberg, Sigray, Jalkanen, Johansson, Liefvendahl and Bensow. Estimates of the noise source spectra of ships based on long term measurements in the Baltic sea are presented. The measurement data were obtained by a hydrophone deployed near a major shipping lane south of the island öland. Data from over 2,000 close-by passages were recorded during a 3 month period from October to December 2014. For each passage, ship-to-hydrophone transmission loss (TL) spectra were computed by sound propagation modeling using 1. bathymetry data from the Baltic Sea Bathymetry Database (BSBD), 2. sound speed profiles from the HIROMB oceanographic model, 3. seabed parameters obtained by acoustic inversion of data from a calibrated source, and 4. AIS data providing information on each ship's position. These TL spectra were then subtracted from the received noise spectra to estimate the free field source level (SL) spectra for each passage. The SL were compared to predictions by some existing models of noise emission from ships. Input parameters to the models, including e.g., ship length, width, speed, displacement, and engine mass, were obtained from AIS (Automatic Identification System) data and the STEAM database of the Finnish Metereological Institute (FMI).

Propagation modeling

Underwater radiated noise

Ship noise

Baltic sea



Automatic Identification System


I. Karasalo

Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI)

M. Östberg

Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI)

P. Sigray

Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI)

J. P. Jalkanen

Finnish Meteorological Institute

L. Johansson

Finnish Meteorological Institute

Mattias Liefvendahl

Chalmers, Sjöfart och marin teknik

Rickard Bensow

Chalmers, Sjöfart och marin teknik, Marin teknik

Frontiers in Marine Science

2296-7745 (eISSN)

Vol. 4 JUN

Hållbar sjöfart och miljö i Östersjöregionen

Naturvårdsverket, 2015-04-01 -- 2018-03-31.

Baltic Organisations' Network for Funding Science EEIG (BONUS), 2015-04-01 -- 2018-03-31.


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Strömningsmekanik och akustik