Using the ACD3-ladder to manage multi-phase requirements on end-user products
Paper in proceeding, 2017

During the development of any end-user product, a multitude of design decisions need to be made. But if design activities and decisions happen at the wrong time, or not at all, unintentional and sometimes negative design outcomes can be the result. Determining all requirements early in the product development is traditionally recommended, but may force design decisions to be made prematurely on the basis of incomplete preconditions. Requirements at different degrees of resolution are useful and purposeful at different stages of the development process. To address these requirements management challenges, this paper proposes an approach for incrementally developing requirements in parallel with design, based upon a previously developed framework called ACD³, which draws on a combination of theoretically compatible ideas and concepts from Design Engineering, Human Factors/Ergonomics, Usability and Systems Theory. This approach helps designers identify and handle the possible interdependencies of design variables. The paper also theoretically motivates and demonstrates with an example how the different resolution levels of requirements relate within the framework.

Design management


Organisation of product development

Multi- / Cross- / Transdisciplinary processes


Cecilia Berlin

Chalmers, Product and Production Development, Production Systems

Lars-Ola Bligård

Chalmers, Product and Production Development, Design and Human Factors

Eva Simonsen

Chalmers, Product and Production Development, Design and Human Factors

Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED

22204334 (ISSN) 22204342 (eISSN)

Vol. 4 DS87-4 425-434
978-1-904670-87-2 (ISBN)

Subject Categories

Mechanical Engineering

Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics

Other Mechanical Engineering


Other Engineering and Technologies

Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified

Driving Forces

Innovation and entrepreneurship



More information

Latest update