Importance of triggers and veto-barriers for the implementation of sanitation in informal peri-urban settlements – The case of cochabamba, Bolivia
Journal article, 2018

An estimated 2.4 billion people lack access to improved sanitation which has devastating consequences for human health and the environment. Understanding what constitute sanitation demand is crucial for accelerating the spread of improved sanitation. This study aims to understand the adoption mechanisms for improved sanitation. An informal peri-urban settlement in Cochabamba, Bolivia was selected as a case study to understand adoption patterns. Various qualitative methods of data collection and analysis were employed. The findings showed that pour-flush toilets was the only preferred sanitation alternative at the study site. An adoption framework for waterborne toilets was developed based on diffusion of innovation theory. Factors that influence adoption were identified. Some functioned as triggers and initiated adoption, whereas some factors blocked adoption and constituted veto-barriers. Most factors were connected to the individual household situation and its members, but neighborhood development also affected pour-flush adoption. Based on adoption time the residents were divided into the following adoption groups: first adopters, early majority, late majority, laggards and non-adopters. Each adoption group followed its own adoption route with specific characteristics and respective triggers or veto-barriers. We argue that the strong demand for waterborne toilets in peri-urban areas need to be recognized and the developed framework could be used for customizing sanitation improvement programs for certain target groups.


Ida Helgegren

Chalmers, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Water Environment Technology

Sebastien Rauch

Chalmers, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Water Environment Technology

Claudia Cossio Grageda

Chalmers, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Water Environment Technology

University of San Simón

Graciela Landaeta

PROCASHA Foundation

Jennifer R Mc Conville

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)


1932-6203 (ISSN)

Vol. 13 4 e0193613

Subject Categories

Information Science

Human Geography

Information Systemes, Social aspects



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